October 1932 QST
Table of Contents
These
articles are scanned and OCRed from old editions of the ARRL's QST magazine. Here is a list
of the QST articles I have already posted. All copyrights are hereby acknowledged.

When
someone with the first name of "True" writes an article about transmission line feeds for shortwave antennas, you
should probably take note. This very topic has been covered in detail many times since the use of impedancematched
transmission lines have been in use (more than a century), but since there are always people new to the concept, it is
good to keep introducing the topic on a regular basis. Even in this era of prefabricated everything, it still often
comes down to winding coils and adjusting cable lengths to get optimal impedance matches between transceivers and
antennas.
TransmissionLine Feed for ShortWave Antennas
By True McLean *
Much has been written on shortwave antennas and methods of connecting them to the associated transmitting apparatus.
The halfwave Hertz antenna seems to have become almost the universal favorite. Long and heated has been the controversy
over the advantages of vertical versus horizontal Hertz radiators, although in the last analysis the choice seems to be
made on a basis of convenience. The horizontal type can be located with a greater average height than the vertical, with
a given mast. Two common methods of feeding Hertz wires are in wide use: the end or socalled "voltage" feed, and the center
or "current" feed. The choice here also is largely a matter of convenience, the results in either case being determined
by the care taken in the design and adjustment of the feed system rather than by the choice of method. If the radiator is
located a considerable distance from surrounding objects, either the end or center or both is bound to be inaccessible from
the apparatus room. This is, of course, the reason for the development of a considerable variety of transmissionline feed
systems.
Fig. 1  Method of Adjusting Impedance Match of Dummy Load to a Line of Random Length
In the present discussion only twowire systems will be considered, and it will be assumed the lines are uniform; that
is, each foot of line is like every other foot of line as to wire size and spacing. Uniform lines have certain characteristics
that are independent of length and frequency, and certain others that appear only when there is a definite and often critical
relation between frequency and line length.
If a uniform line is infinitely long, it will have at its terminal a definite impedance. This may vary somewhat, though
not largely, with frequency, but has the interesting property that it steadies down to a definite limiting value as the
frequency is raised. For all practical lines this limiting value, called the surge impedance, is very closely approached
throughout the useful range of frequencies used in radio communication. It is safe to say that the natural or surge impedance
of an r.f. line does not change appreciably between frequency limits of, say, the longest waves used for radio, and waves
so short that the line spacing becomes an appreciable fraction of the wavelength. Do I hear a small voice say, "But what
good is a line of infinite length?" True enough, no one could afford to build one long enough to approach that condition
electrically and would not want to if he could, for it would be useless. The useful part of the discussion is that you can
take a line of any useful length, and fool it into thinking it is infinite in length, making it behave exactly as if it
were. This is done by "matching" the surge impedance at the receiver (load) end.
Suppose you had an infinite line, beginning at your transmitter and extending out to your antenna and on indefinitely.
Then suppose you went out as far as your antenna and cut off the line there. The section beyond would still be infinitely
long, and so the impedance measured would still be the same. But how about the short section from the shack to the antenna?
You could make it appear to be infinite if you connected to its receiver end something which had the same impedance as the
indefinitely long section you cut off. If, therefore, you know what the surge impedance is, and connect on to the receiver
end a piece of apparatus which duplicates it, the sending end will show the same value of impedance as an infinite line,
regardless of the frequency used or the length of the section.
A dummy resistor of the same resistance as the line characteristic surge impedance is connected to a LowC coupling tank,
as shown at a, and the circuits tuned to resonance and coupling adjusted for normal power with the line disconnected, as
described in the text. The dummy is then removed to the antenna end of the line, and if the line and dummy impedances are
identical, all tuning adjustments will check the same as before, and the power in the dummy and p.a. plate current will
duplicate for the same coupling.
The reasons for terminating a line in its surge impedance are two: first, it produces the condition discussed above,
making the line impedance independent of frequency and line length; and second, for reasons too complicated to discuss here,
it makes the line transfer power from generator to load with the highest possible efficiency. Any well constructed line,
if correctly terminated, will show an efficiency of nearly 100% in any length up to a thousand feet or more. I have in mind
a line that has been in operation at a broadcasting station for over a year. It is approximately 800 feet long. Its efficiency
is so high that I was unable to determine its losses with the best available instruments under operating conditions. To
determine its efficiency special indirect methods would be required, and under the circumstances this was not deemed worth
while.
Some Essential Theory
Fig. 2  A Concentric Cable Line Which Requires No Impedance Matching
How do we find out the value of this magical surge impedance for a given line after we have built it? Well, there are
two ways. If the line is of a simple geometrical configuration, the easiest and most accurate way is to calculate it from
a formula. For two of the commonest types of line the formulas are simple and easy to apply. These cases are parallel solid
wires and concentric cables. For ordinary round parallel wires the formula is:
Z = 276 log (b/a), (1)
where Z is the desired surge impedance in ohms, b is the wire spacing (center to center) in inches, and a is the wire
radius (half the diameter) in inches. The logarithm is common or Briggs log to the base 10, found in any trigonometry or
engineers' handbook, or the "L" scale on any slide rule. In using this formula two precautions must be taken. First, do
not mix units in the values of a and b. You can use inches, centimeters, or anything at all, but a and b positively must
be in the same units. Do not use inches for one and mils for the other, or mix centimeters and millimeters. Second, log
tables and slide rule scales give logarithms only to the right of the decimal point; you have to supply the part to the
left. Here is how it is done.
If the value of b/a is less than 10 (it cannot be less than 2, or the wires would touch), there is no figure to left
of decimal point; use the value right out of table or sliderule scale, with decimal point in front. If the value is 10
or more, up to 100, the figure is 1 to left of decimal, and the table value to the right. If b/a is 100 or over, up to 1000,
the figure is 2. From 1000 and up as far as 10,000 it is 3, with one added in this fashion for each additional decimal place.
Any line with a value of b/a of 10,000 or more would have poor efficiency, however, since it would either be made of very
small wire or else spaced so widely that radiation would become appreciable in any but a short length.
Practically, it is best to use wire not smaller than No. 14 and spacings not more than 10 inches. In building a line,
use only bare wire. Insulation is always bad, especially in wet weather. If you are bothered with corrosion from smoke,
use enameled wire. Use only enough spacers to keep the line in shape. In attaching spacers avoid metal pieces, and do not
wrap the conductors around the ends of the spacers. I think highgrade glass or porcelain spacers are best, but if you use
porcelain be sure it is the best grade and won't soak up water.
The concentric cable type of line is more difficult to build, but has certain advantages to be discussed later, so here
is its formula:
Z = 138 log (b/a). (2)
Again, Z is the surge impedance, b is
the inside diameter of the outer conductor, and a is the outside diameter (not radius) of the inner conductor. Same precautions
as formula (1). Notice that a is radius in (1) and diameter in (2). (This is not the reason why the constant in (1) is twice
as big as in (2) however.) Practically, in the concentric cable the greatest problem is in the spacers. Now here is a chance
for the whole gang to get busy and figure out something. What we want is some kind of bead to slip on the wire or small
pipe forming the inner conductor to keep it uniformly spaced in the center of the larger pipe or outer conductor. We want
to be able to bend the cable after assembly without throwing the center conductor very far out of line or breaking the beads.
We also want to fasten the beads so they won't slip and so we don't have to use too many of them. We do not want to pack
the cable with insulation. Air is best. The beads should be made of good lowloss insulation. Who has some bright ideas?
Multiple Quarter and HalfWave Lines
Uniform lines have some interesting properties if cut to lengths that are exact multiples of a quarter wavelength. If
the line length is just
(3)
where λ is the wave length and n an integer, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, etc., then the line acts like a transformer. If it
is terminated in its surge impedance, it will still give the same value at the sending end, since this is true for any length.
But if it is terminated in anything else, say Z_{r} its sendingend impedance, Z_{t}, will be related to
the receivingend impedance, Z_{r}, and the surge impedance, Z_{s}, by the simple relation,
(4)
Stated in words this is: The product of the sendingend impedance by the connectedload impedance is equal to the square
of the surge impedance. If a very high impedance is connected at the receiver end, the sending end value will be low, and
vice versa.
This principle is the foundation of the wellknown Zeppelin feeder. An endfed Hertz doublet has a high impedance. The
line is cut to an odd quarter wavelength and acts simultaneously as a feeder and matching transformer, feeding the antenna
with a high voltage and small current, while taking a high current and low voltage from the transmitter. This scheme is
very convenient and is widely used, but it should be appreciated that there are two important disadvantages. First, the
line must be cut to an exact length, which may not suit the location. The length is critical, and swinging due to wind is
sure to vary the transmitter frequency unless a very stable m.o.p.a. is used. Besides, one is never sure that the current
node is really at the junction. The line is also operated in an unbalanced connection. Second, the line is operated under
conditions where its efficiency is minimum instead of maximum. A quarterwave Zeppelin feeder may have fairly good efficiency,
but in the longer multiples the losses are bound to pile up rapidly.
Another interesting condition is when the line length is just
l = (n/2) λ (5)
where the symbols have the same meaning as before. Under this condition the line acts just like a pair of jumper wires
of negligible length. Whatever impedance you connect at the receiver end will be duplicated at the sending end, regardless
of value. This is not quite true if the value is extremely large or extremely small, but is accurate for most ordinary values.
If the line were free of all losses, the statement would be correct for any value; it is an ideal condition which is closely
approached. The same thing is true of the formula for the Zeppelin feeder of odd quarter length.
At this juncture I think it is about time for the Old Man to touch off a string of profanity and tell me I sound like
Final Authority  all theory and formulas, ifs, ands, buts and no results. There is many a slip between pencil and paper,
and copper and pyrex. What good is it to know that the surge impedance is 400 or 600 ohms, and must be matched at the load
end? We do not care what the value is; what we want is to push the key and see the antenna meter hop. Then we would like
to know if the reading we get is the best possible. The problem is just this: After we get the transmitter working O.K.
and the antenna and feed lineinstalled, how do we adjust the whole works so we actually get the desired results?
Fitting Theory to Practice
Fig.3  Special case of line of length equal to one or more half waves, in which the impedance looking
into the line becomes the same as the load impedance for all values of the latter
To begin with, a few remarks about radiation from feed lines might not be out of place. The objective is obviously to
make the antenna do all the radiating, and prevent radiation from the line, for two reasons. First of all, the main object
of using a feed line is to make it possible to locate the antenna a reasonable distance from all objects that might distort
the field and soak up some of the valuable watts that have been generated at considerable cost of labor and money. If the
line has an appreciable field of its own its main purpose is defeated at the very start, because its field will react with
that of the antenna to produce a resultant which is not what we want, and the line usually passes quite near objects we
want to keep out of the intense field, such as tin roofs, rain pipes and gutters, lighting conduit, gas pipes, to say nothing
of telephone wires and such things. Secondly, we want the power all at the antenna. Even if the line gives useful radiation
instead of loss, we do not want it, because that is not what we set out to accomplish. To prevent line radiation, the circuit
must be balanced. By that I mean that the currents in the two wires must be equal and opposite in direction. If they are,
the fields of the two wires will cancel. The cancellation is never perfect even though the balance is correct, because the
line still acts like a long thin loop antenna of one turn.
This effect can be kept small by avoiding wide spacing. Transposition helps but is not a cure, and I believe is more
nuisance than it is worth. Here is where the concentriccable line shines; its field is entirely internal.
The business end of a transmitter is almost always a tuned circuit (tank). The power amplifier must be given the right
amount of loading to make it perform efficiently. The best way to adjust the loading is to use inductive coupling to the
plate tank; then an adjustment of loading can be made over a considerable range nearly independently of tuning. The line
can be coupled to the plate tank with a simple coil; this is common practice in broadcast transmitters but has the. disadvantage
that the reactance of the coupling coil affects the plate tank tuning when the coupling is changed. The best scheme is to
use a light (low C) tank circuit on the line. Then the condenser tunes out the reactance of the coupling coil, and it will
be found that the coupling adjustment has very little effect on the tuning of the p.a. plate tank.
Tuning with the Aid of Dummy Antennas
Now the surge impedance of a line has the character of a pure resistance. Hence adjustments are best made with the aid
of a dummy resistor. The very best kind is made like a piece of cloth, woven out of resistance wire for the woof and asbestos
cord for the warp. These resistors are relatively inexpensive and convenient because they can be adjusted with clips on
the edges (selvage). They are relatively noninductive and have low distributed capacity, which is very necessary for best
results. They are not selfindicating, however, and must be used with a meter. Lamp banks are convenient because maximum
current can be detected at a glance without a meter, but care must be taken to use them only near their rated power because
lamps change their resistance over wide limits with variable input. A common 20watt 110volt lamp has a resistance of about
600 ohms at normal brilliance. A pair of 210's in the p.a., a very common combination, should work a 20watt lamp in good
shape. If they do not there is trouble somewhere in the transmitter.
Referring to Fig. 1, first connect the dummy resistor to the linecoupling tank as shown at (a). Adjust the coupling
for normal load on the p.a. Tuning the plate tank should give a sharp minimum plate current when properly adjusted. Tuning
the load tank should give a broad maximum of both plate current and power in the dummy. If the maximum comes at the zero
end of the condenser, the coil is too large. If it comes with condenser all in, the coil is too small. Change the coil accordingly,
to bring the maximum well on the condenser scale. Note all adjustments carefully. Then remove the dummy and attach the line.
Take the dummy outside and attach to the receiver end of the line, Fig. 1b. If the dummy resistance is the same as the line
surge impedance, all readings and adjustments will duplicate, so that as far as readings and adjustments are concerned it
would be impossible to tell whether the load is connected through a line or right to the tank. If you notice a difference,
try a slightly different value of dummy resistance and repeat. It has been my experience with broadcast transmitters that
if the dummy is made equal to the calculated line surge impedance, it always works first trial without any fuss or trouble.
Incidentally, the value is not at all critical; quite a little variation in either direction will produce only a small effect
on tuning and p.a. loading. After this adjustment is finished, note all adjustments and p.a. plate current. Incidentally,
this is an excellent opportunity to check up on p.a. .efficiency, since the actual load is known. The next trick is to adjust
the antenna connection so that it duplicates the dummy.
Matching the Line and Antenna
Fig. 4  Three Methods of coupling transmission lines to grounded antennas
The method chosen to match the antenna to the feed line will depend largely on convenience. There are a number of different
ways, and if the general principles are kept in mind any of them can be made to work. For frequencies above 14 mc. the direct"Y"
connection is the simplest and best for ordinary laddertype lines arid halfwave Hertz antennas. This scheme was described
in detail in QST for December, 1930. To adjust the match, attach the line to the antenna with clips and vary the spread
of the clips from the center. The correct adjustment is when the p.a. loading and tuning adjustments agree with those for
the dummy resistor. If no satisfactory adjustment can be found, it is probably because the transmitter frequency is not
in tune with the antenna. Check up antenna length and master oscillator frequency.
For frequencies lower than 14 mc. the Y connection does not work out so well. It is clumsy and becomes difficult to adjust
when the spread is large. There are two ways out of the difficulty:
Use a matching network; or make the antenna and line match without a network by changing the impedance of one or the
other to fit. A halfwave Hertz antenna has a series resistance (at the center) of about 65 ohms at resonance. This is practically
independent of frequency; that is, a larger or smaller antenna, driven at resonance by a lower or higher frequency respectively,
will have the same resistance. It is not practical to alter this value without adding networks of some kind. So to get a
match without a network, it would be necessary to terminate the line with 65 ohms. A little juggling with formula (1) will
convince anyone that to build an open wire line with 65 ohms surge impedance is practically impossible. If the spacing is
reduced until the wires touch you can only get down to 83 ohms, even if there was no short circuit. But look at the formula
for the concentric cable line. Try a value of b/a of 3 or a little less, and you find that if b/a is 2.96, Z is 65. The
answer is simple. Use a concentric cable line and connect it directly to the broken center of a halfwave Hertz and forget
about matching impedances. Use a series tank to feed it. The outer conductor may be grounded, and the whole assembly makes
an efficient lightning rod. See Fig. 2.
Another way to do the trick is to use the principle of formula (5). Then any type of line will do, but must be an integral
multiple of a halfwave in length. Use the same circuit as for the concentric cable, but divide the condenser just as you
would for a standard Zepp feeder. See Fig. 3. This arrangement works exactly like a Zepp system except that the antenna
is current fed in the center, and the line length fits formula (5) instead of (3). This arrangement is open to the same
objections as the standard Zepp, however. There is high standing wave current in the line, which works at lower efficiency
than it would if terminated in Z_{s}. A point of very high voltage will develop in the center of line, so watch
out for leaky insulators near it.
Ideal potential distributions along the antenna and tuning apparatus also are shown.
Grounded Antennas
Fig. 5  The circuit of Fig. 4b applied to antennas of different lengths
The good old Marconi grounded antenna seems to be coming back into favor after several years of neglect. In this case
the antenna system is inherently nonsymmetrical, and care must be taken to balance the feed line so that the potential
node is in the center of the line inductance. Fig. 4 shows some types of feeder connections for grounded antennas. At (a)
is shown the most popular circuit for broadcast transmitters. It is not recommended because it is too difficult to tune
properly. Every adjustment affects every other, and unless you have had considerable experience with this circuit I would
not advise it. At (b) is the most satisfactory circuit for general use. It has no appreciable losses if built decently.
High C tanks, as in (a), are effective harmonic suppressors, but exact their toll in losses. An alternative circuit equivalent
to (b) is shown at (c). It is equally effective but a little more tricky to adjust, because the potential node, being in
the condenser, is not accessible for test.
In Fig. 5 is shown the circuit of (4b) for different antenna sizes, along with ideal potential distributions. The coils
and condensers serve the double purpose of matching and loading. The method of adjusting is very simple. Proceed to adjust
the line .with the dummy as in Fig. 1, then attach line to network and tune to resonance (maximum antenna current). Vary
the spread of the line clips until the line currents and p.a. loading are the same as with the dummy. If the number of coil
turns is small, giving adjustment in too big steps, replace with a coil of smaller diameter and more turns. Then fish for
the nodal point by the touch test method. It should be in the center of the part of inductance included between the line
clips. If not, move both line clips together up or down, keeping the spread constant. If in either spread or balance adjustment
you run off the bottom end of the coil, reduce the ground series condenser and add more turns in series with antenna. This
will move the nodal point up on the coil. If you run off the other end, you will have to change to the circuit shown in
5b. After the balance is adjusted recheck the impedance match with the dummy. You will probably hit it right on the second
trip through this procedure. It is not necessary to have a whole flock of thermoammeters; one will do for the line adjustments.
Make several bakelite binding post blocks to insert in the various places, and put wire jumpers in place of the meter when
it is being used somewhere else.
In Fig. 5b the condensers are the same size. In 5c the upper condenser is reduced in size. In 5d the inductance for correct
operation will be found to be quite small. The arrangement at 5e is a lowangle radiation antenna of the type that has been
given much publicity (WABC), though the line matching network is not that ordinarily used. I want to commend particularly
to the amateur fraternity the circuit of 5f. This is a halfwave vertical Hertz, voltagefed at the bottom by means of a
resonance coil. The principle of this has been discussed in QST for July, 1932, page 45. The difference here, of course,
is the addition of the feed line. The proper place for the antenna ammeter is halfway up. As before, the meter can be hauled
up with the antenna for testing and read with a field glass from a convenient secondstory window. For regular service replace
the meter with a brass strip having a pair of binding posts on it. At the shorter wavelengths it is possible to remove the
ground condenser entirely. The best way to tune the resonance coil is to use a small (peanut type) neon lamp held in the
hand. It will glow when the top of the coil is approached even without touching. The spread adjustment will have to be made
with the antenna attached.
Incidentally, an antenna is a twoway device, and coupling the feed line into the first tuned circuit of your receiver
may give you a great surprise on the band used for transmitting.
* Consulting Engineer, Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca. N. Y.
Posted May 16, 2016
