market electronic components are not just a recent problem. Long before IC foundries were
set up in China, Indonesia, Vietnam, etc., to produce counterfeit semiconductor components, there
were unscrupulous manufacturers turning out bogus components of all sorts. Marking unauthorized
microprocessor and amplifier packages with an industry-leading brand name and part number is a
real problem, but such practices extend back to the vacuum tube era. This story from a 1957 edition
of Popular Electronics tells the story of how companies like General Electric and Sylvania
dealt with the situation.
January 1957 Popular Electronics
[Table of Contents]People old and young enjoy waxing
nostalgic about and learning some of the history of early electronics. Popular Electronics was published from October
1954 through April 1985. All copyrights (if any) are hereby
System Design: Fraudulent and Forged Parts Part I,
Part II, by Walter Shawlee, Avionics magazine
See all articles from
Foil Those Tube ForgersYou can help stamp out crime in the electronic tube trade
The old warning about taking wooden nickels has returned in electronic guise:
beware of counterfeit radio tubes! Every trade has its own kind of crooks. Electronics' contribution
to the criminal roster is the fly-by-night dealer who buys up old, defective tubes for next to
nothing, forges a new brand on them, and sells them at "bargain prices."
Duds. Forgers sometimes get hold of discarded tubes by pretending that they are to be
used as targets in a shooting gallery. The tubes are then cleaned and polished to a fresh-looking
gloss, and rebranded with the name of a prominent manufacturer.
Most important, the rebrander
removes the old warranty number and replaces it with a current code. Some forgers, equipped equally
with gall and skill, actually have the nerve to turn their newly "guaranteed" tubes back to the
manufacturer, complaining indignantly that the tube does not work and "please send a new one,
Of course, the crook and his customer will be the first to yell when the manufacturer's
loss shows up in a price increase to be borne by the entire public. Large manufacturers, like
Sylvania and G.E., estimate a million dollar loss annually through this kind of fraud.
It's Up To You! The tube industry recently started an all-out campaign to stop
this racket. Each tube returned to the manufacturer is now closely examined to make sure that
it is legitimate. Furthermore, the factory destroys all defective reject tubes to keep them from
falling into the hands of the forgers. Only first-rate tubes are put on the market.
Huge tube crushers
are stoked with reject tubes at the General Electric Tube Department.
(upper) and at Sylvania's tube plant at Emporium, Pennsylvania (lower). Such a procedure keeps
substandard tubes off the market. These companies feel that all burned-out or defective tubes
should be smashed to keep them out of the reach of criminal rebranders. After crushing, a flotation
process separates glass splinters from the heavier metals, which are then recovered.
Quality control programs
supplement regular production testing to make sure
that all tubes sold under brand name meet specifications. Scientific sampling techniques validate
500 million receiving and allied type tubes were manufactured during 1955, with a considerable
percentage destined for the replacement tube market. For each new replacement tube sold, a dud
of that type usually was discarded. The above figure highlights the importance of halting the
flow of duds into illicit channels. But public cooperation is also needed to dry up the black
REAL TUBE BARGAINS
Rebranded tubes should not be confused
with legitimate "surplus tubes." Surplus tubes are available at low prices from honest discount
dealers. As a rule, they are new tubes obtained from equipment manufacturers who may have gone
bankrupt or out of business, or may have changed the design of their products so that they no
longer need their tube stock. Since such manufacturers usually buy tubes at wholesale prices,
their remaining stock may be legitimately sold to surplus dealers at low rates. These legitimate
discount tube distributors offer the radio experimenter good values at low prices.
industry is urging all electronics amateurs, experimenters, repair shops and the general public
to cooperate in driving the rebrand racketeers out of business. Smash everyone of your used-up
tubes. Don't sell them and don't give them away.
The tube manufacturers themselves are
aiding local law enforcement in bringing these forgers to trial. Some companies have assigned
detectives to obtain legal evidence against the rebranders. A recently convicted rebrander was
sentenced to two years in prison. He boasted that counterfeiting could have brought him an income
of $25,000 annually if he hadn't been too lazy to work steadily!
Sylvania Electric Co.
has offered a $1000 reward for "information leading to the arrest and conviction" of individual
or company fraudulently branding tubes with the Sylvania name. The Philco Corporation buys up
all old tubes for five cents each. These and other measures are designed to pull the rug out from
under the rebranding racket.
Junk-Selling Methods. The tube counterfeiter
usually is a pretty slick operator. He tells a good story. The pitch might be that he bought unused
quality tubes at an auction, when a service shop went out of business, and is passing on the saving
to you. He might claim that an equipment manufacturer discontinued certain tube types in his equipment
and sold these unused quality tubes at a loss.
To sidestep suspicion, the forger often
mixes a number of good tubes into a pile of duds to be palmed off to gullible customers.
One sure way to know if the tubes you buy are unused factory-tested quality products is to
insist on a carton with the warranty information printed thereon. You are not likely to go wrong
if each and every tube comes in a new brand-name carton.
There are no legitimate
tube "seconds." Tubes that fail to meet specifications are not marketed by responsible manufacturers.
Instead, they are smashed at the plant in large machines to make sure that no defective tubes
reach the market; for a dud is never a bargain.