The gradient is a vector operation that operates on a scalar function to produce a vector. The vector's magnitude
is the maximum rate of change of the function at the point of the gradient, is pointed in the direction of that
maximum rate of change.
"Ñ" is a vector and is pronounced "del." The scalar function is V(x,y,z),
V(r,Φ,z), or V(r,θ,Φ)
The divergence of a gradient is know as the LaPlacian.
Cartesian Coordinates 

Cylindrical Coordinates 

Spherical Coordinates 

