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Einstein's Theory of Special Relativity

Special relativity is the physical theory of measurement in inertial frames of reference proposed in 1905 by Albert Einstein in the paper "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies". It generalizes Galileo's principle of relativity–that all uniform motion is relative, and that there is no absolute and well-defined state of rest (no privileged reference frames)–from mechanics to all the laws of physics, including both the laws of mechanics and of electrodynamics, whatever they may be. Special relativity incorporates the principle that the speed of light is the same for all inertial observers regardless of the state of motion of the source.

This theory has a wide range of consequences which have been experimentally verified, including counter-intuitive ones such as length contraction, time dilation and relativity of simultaneity, contradicting the classical notion that the duration of the time interval between two events is equal for all observers. (On the other hand, it introduces the space-time interval, which is invariant.) Combined with other laws of physics, the two postulates of special relativity predict the equivalence of matter and energy, as expressed in the mass-energy equivalence formula E = mc2, where c is the speed of light in a vacuum. The predictions of special relativity agree well with Newtonian mechanics in their common realm of applicability, specifically in experiments in which all velocities are small compared to the speed of light.

Special relativity reveals that c is not just the velocity of a certain phenomenon, namely the propagation of electromagnetic radiation (light)—but rather a fundamental feature of the way space and time are unified as spacetime. A consequence of this is that it is impossible for any particle that has mass to be accelerated to the speed of light. - Wikipedia

The basic translational equations of Albert Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity are presented here.

Einsteinian Commandment:   "Thou shalt not add thine own speed directly to the speed of
                                                thine fellow traveler."

c = speed of light. Primed quantities are moving at speed "v"

Time Dilation Length Contraction Relativistic Mass

RF Cafe - Relativistic time dilation equation formula
Moving clocks run slow

RF Cafe - Relativistic length contraction equation formula
Moving rods appear shorter

RF Cafe - Relativistic mass increase equation formula
Moving mass increases
Addition of Relativistic Velocities

For some , relating frames S and S",
and where   is the "correction factor" for high relative velocities compared to c.
Thanks to Dr. DonZi for this equation