Copyright
1996 
2016
Webmaster:
Kirt
Blattenberger,
BSEE  KB3UON
RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The Internet was still largely an unknown entity at the time and not much was available in the form of WYSIWYG ...
All trademarks, copyrights, patents, and other rights of ownership to images and text used on the RF Cafe website are hereby acknowledged.
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AirplanesAndRockets.com
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Nobel
Laureates 

Year  Winner  Achievement 
2010  Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov  "for groundbreaking experiments regarding the twodimensional material graphene" 
2009  Charles K. Kao  "for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication" 
2009  Willard S. Boyle and George E. Smith  "for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit – the CCD sensor" 
2008  Makoto Kobayashi and Toshihide Maskawa  "for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature" 
2008  Yoichiro Nambu  "for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics" 
2007 
Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg 
"for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance" 
2006  John C. Mather and George F. Smoot  "for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation" 
2005  Roy J. Glauber  "for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence" 
2005 
John L. Hall and Theodor W. Hänsch 
"for their contributions to the development of laserbased precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique" 
2004 
David J. Gross, H. David Politzer, and Frank Wilczek 
"for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction" 
2003 
Alexei A. Abrikosov, Vitaly L. Ginzburg, and Anthony J. Leggett 
"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids" 
2002  Raymond Davis Jr. and Masatoshi Koshiba  "for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos" 
2002  Riccardo Giacconi  "for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic Xray sources" 
2001 
Eric A. Cornell, Wolfgang Ketterle and Carl E. Wieman 
"for the achievement of BoseEinstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates" 
2000  Zhores I. Alferov and Herbert Kroemer  "for basic work on information and communication technology" "for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in highspeed and optoelectronics" 
2000  Jack S. Kilby  "for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit" 
1999  Gerardus 't Hooft and Martinus J.G. Veltman  "for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics" 
1998 
Robert B. Laughlin, Horst L. Störmer, and Daniel C. Tsui 
"for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations" 
1997 
Steven Chu, Claude CohenTannoudji, and William D. Phillips 
"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light" 
1996 
David M. Lee, Douglas D. Osheroff, and Robert C. Richardson 
"for their discovery of superfluidity in helium3" 
1995  Martin L. Perl and Frederick Reines  "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics" "for the discovery of the tau lepton" "for the detection of the neutrino" 
1994  Bertram N. Brockhouse and Clifford G. Shull  "for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter" "for the development of neutron spectroscopy" "for the development of the neutron diffraction technique" 
1993  Russell A. Hulse and Joseph H. Taylor Jr.  "for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation" 
1992  Georges Charpak  "for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber" 
1991  PierreGilles de Gennes  "for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers" 
1990 
Jerome I. Friedman, Henry W. Kendall and Richard E. Taylor 
"for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics" 
1989 
Norman F. Ramsey, Hans G. Dehmelt, and Wolfgang Paul 
"for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks" "for the development of the ion trap technique" 
1988 
Leon M. Lederman, Melvin Schwartz, and Jack Steinberger 
"for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino" 
1987 
J. Georg Bednorz and K. Alex Müller 
"for their important breakthrough in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials" 
1986  Ernst Ruska  "for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope" 
1986 
Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer 
"for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope" 
1985  Klaus von Klitzing  "for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect" 
1984 
Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer 
"for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction" 
1983  Subramanyan Chandrasekhar  "for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars" 
1983  William A. Fowler  "for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe" 
1982  Kenneth G. Wilson  "for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions" 
1981  Nicolaas Bloembergen and Arthur L. Schawlow  "for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy" 
1981  Kai M. Siegbahn  "for his contribution to the development of highresolution electron spectroscopy" 
1980 
James Cronin and Val Fitch 
"for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral Kmesons" 
1979 
Sheldon Glashow, Abdus Salam, and Steven Weinberg 
"for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current" 
1978  Pyotr Kapitsa  "for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of lowtemperature physics" 
1978 
Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson 
"for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation" 
1977 
Philip W. Anderson, Sir Nevill F. Mott, and John H. van Vleck 
"for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems" 
1976  Burton Richter and Samuel C.C. Ting  "for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind" 
1975 
Aage N. Bohr, Ben R. Mottelson, and James Rainwater 
"for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection" 
1974 
Martin Ryle and Antony Hewish 
"for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars" 
1973 
Leo Esaki and Ivar Giaever 
"for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively" 
1973  Brian D. Josephson  "for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effects" 
1972 
John Bardeen, Leon N. Cooper and Robert Schrieffer 
"for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCStheory" 
1971  Dennis Gabor  "for his invention and development of the holographic method" 
1970 
Hannes Alfvén and Louis Néel 
"for fundamental work and discoveries in magnetohydrodynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics" "for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics" 
1969  Murray GellMann  "for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions" 
1968  Luis Alvarez  "for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis" 
1967  Hans Bethe  "for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars" 
1966  Alfred Kastler  "for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms" 
1965 
SinItiro Tomonaga, Julian Schwinger, and Richard P. Feynman 
"for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deepploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles" 
1964  Charles H. Townes, Nicolay G. Basov, and Aleksandr M. Prokhorov  "for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maserlaser principle" 
1963  Eugene Wigner  "for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles" 
1963  Maria GoeppertMayer and J. Hans D. Jensen  "for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure" 
1962  Lev Landau  "for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium" 
1961  Robert Hofstadter  "for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons" 
1961  Rudolf Mössbauer  "for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name" 
1960  Donald A. Glaser  "for the invention of the bubble chamber" 
1959 
Emilio Segrè and Owen Chamberlain 
"for their discovery of the antiproton" 
1958 
Pavel A. Cherenkov, Il´ja M. Frank, and Igor Y. Tamm 
"for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect" 
1957  Chen Ning Yang and TsungDao Lee  "for their penetrating investigation of the socalled parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles" 
1956 
William B. Shockley, John Bardeen, and Walter H. Brattain 
"for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect" 
1955  Willis E. Lamb  "for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum" 
1955  Polykarp Kusch  "for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron" 
1954  Max Born  "for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction" 
1954  Walther Bothe  "for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith" 
1953  Frits Zernike  "for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope" 
1952 
Felix Bloch and E. M. Purcell 
"for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith" 
1951 
John Cockcroft and Ernest T.S. Walton 
"for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles" 
1950  Cecil Powell  "for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method" 
1949  Hideki Yukawa  "for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces" 
1948  Patrick M.S. Blackett  "for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation" 
1947  Edward V. Appleton  "for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the socalled Appleton layer" 
1946  Percy W. Bridgman  "for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made therewith in the field of high pressure physics" 
1945  Wolfgang Pauli  "for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli Principle" 
1944  Isidor Isaac Rabi  "for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei" 
1943  Otto Stern  "for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton" 
1942  The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section  
1941  The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section  
1940  The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section  
1939  Ernest Lawrence  "for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements" 
1938  Enrico Fermi  "for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons" 
1937  Clinton Davisson and George Paget Thomson  "for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals" 
1936  Victor F. Hess  "for his discovery of cosmic radiation" 
1936  Carl D. Anderson  "for his discovery of the positron" 
1935  James Chadwick  "for the discovery of the neutron" 
1934  The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund
and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section


1933  Erwin Schrödinger and Paul A.M. Dirac  "for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory" 
1932  Werner Heisenberg  "for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen" 
1931  The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this
prize section 

1930  Venkata Raman  "for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him" 
1929  Louis de Broglie  "for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons" 
1928  Owen Willans Richardson  "for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him" 
1927  Arthur H. Compton  "for his discovery of the effect named after him" 
1927  C.T.R. Wilson  "for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour" 
1926  Jean Baptiste Perrin  "for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium" 
1925 
James Franck and Gustav Hertz 
"for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom" 
1924  Manne Siegbahn  "for his discoveries and research in the field of Xray spectroscopy" 
1923  Robert A. Millikan  "for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect" 
1922  Niels Bohr  "for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them" 
1921  Albert Einstein  "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect" 
1920  Charles Edouard Guillaume  "in recognition of the service he has rendered to precision measurements in Physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel steel alloys" 
1919  Johannes Stark  "for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields" 
1918  Max Planck  "in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta" 
1917  Charles Glover Barkla  "for his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements" 
1916  The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this
prize section 

1915  William Bragg and Lawrence Bragg  "for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of Xrays" 
1914  Max von Laue  "for his discovery of the diffraction of Xrays by crystals" 
1913  Heike Kamerlingh Onnes  "for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium" 
1912  Gustaf Dalén  "for his invention of automatic regulators for use in conjunction with gas accumulators for illuminating lighthouses and buoys" 
1911  Wilhelm Wien  "for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat" 
1910  Johannes Diderik van der Waals  "for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids" 
1909  Guglielmo Marconi and Ferdinand Braun  "in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy" 
1908  Gabriel Lippmann  "for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference" 
1907  Albert A. Michelson  "for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid" 
1906  J.J. Thomson  "in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases" 
1905  Philipp Lenard  "for his work on cathode rays" 
1904  Lord Rayleigh  "for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies" 
1903  Henri Becquerel  "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity" 
1903 
Pierre Curie and Marie Curie, née Sklodowska

"in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel" 
1902  Hendrik Antoon Lorentz and Pieter Zeeman  "in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered
by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation
phenomena" 
1901  Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen  "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him 