[Table of Contents]
People old and young
enjoy waxing nostalgic about and learning some of the history of early electronics. Electronics World was published
from May 1959 through December 1971.
As time permits, I will be glad to scan articles for you. All copyrights (if any) are hereby
There is no such thing as
too many introductory articles on operational amplifiers (opamps). Of course, when this story was written for
Electronics World back in 1967, opamp were relatively new to the scene. Prior to the advent of opamps, circuit
design for controllers, filter, comparators, isolators, and just plain old amplification was much more involved.
Opamps suddenly allowed designers to not worry as much about biasing, variations in power supply voltages, and
other annoyances, and instead focus on function. Even from the very beginning with the μa741 operational
amplifier, the parameters came close to those of an ideal device: infinite input impedance, zero output impedance,
perfect isolation between ports, and infinite bandwidth. OK, the bandwidth spec was more constrained compared to
the other three, but still, with frequencies being what they were compared to today, it was close enough. Opamps
allowed engineers to design with the simplicity of LaPlace equations.
See all the available
The Operational Amplifier
Circuits & Applications
By Donald E. Lancaster
These highly versatile controllable-gain modular or integrated-circuit packages
have been used in computer and military circuits. New price and size reductions have opened commercial and
consumer markets. Here are complete details on what is available and how the devices are used.
modular package and TO-5 style IC operational amplifiers.
Once exclusively the mainstay of the
analog-computer field, operational amplifiers are now finding diverse uses throughout the rest of the electronics
industry. An operational amplifier is basically a high-gain, d.c.-coupled bipolar amplifier, usually featuring a
high input impedance and a low output impedance. Its inherent utility lies in its ability to have its gain and
response precisely controlled by external resistors and capacitors.
Since resistors and capacitors are
passive elements, there is very little problem keeping the gain and circuit response stable and independent of
temperature, supply variations, or changes in gain of the op amp itself. Just how these resistors and capacitors
are arranged determines exactly what the operational amplifier will do. In essence, an op amp provides "instant
gain" that may be used for practically any circuit from a.c., d.c., and r.f. amplifiers, to precision waveform
generators, to high- "Q" inductorless filters, to mathematical problem solvers.
Fig. 1. (A) Op-amp symbol. (B) Block diagram of typical op amp.
Fig. 2. Characteristics of the Fairchild μA702C. Price: $9.00.
Fig. 3. Characteristics of Motorola's MC1430. Price: $12.00.
Fig. 4. The RCA CA3030 operational amplifier. Unlabeled terminals are used for frequency-compensation. Price:
$7.50. Note that the prices given here and above are for singleunit quantities and these prices are subject to
Op amps used to be quite expensive, but many of today's integrated circuit versions now range from $6 to $20 each
and less in quantity. Due to price breaks that have occurred very recently, the same benefits now available to the
analog computer, industrial, and military markets are now extended to commercial and consumer circuits. One
obvious application will be in hi-fi preamps where a single integrated circuit can replace the bulk of the
low-level transistor circuitry normally used.
Fig. 1A shows the op-amp symbol. An op amp has two
high-impedance inputs, the inverting input and the non-inverting input, as indicated by a "-" or a "+" on the
input side of the amplifier. The inverting input is out-of-phase with the output, while the non-inverting input is
in-phase with the output. The amplifier has an open-loop gain A, which may range from several thousand to several
On closer inspection, we see three distinct parts to any operational amplifier's internal
circuitry, as shown in Fig. 1B. A high-input-impedance differential amplifier forms the first stage, with the
inverting input going to one side and the non-inverting input the other. The purpose of this stage is to allow the
inputs to differentially drive the circuit and also to provide a high input impedance.
There are several
possibilities for this input stage. If an ordinary matched pair of transistors (or the integrated circuit
equivalent) is used, an input impedance from 10,000 to 100,000 ohms will result, combined with low drift, low
cost, and wide bandwidth. By using four transistors in a differential Darlington configuration, the input
impedance may be nearly one megohm. Drift and circuit cost are traded for this benefit.
Field-effect transistors are sometimes used, yielding input impedances of 100 megohms, but often with
limited bandwidths. FET integrated-circuit operational amplifiers are not yet available, limiting this technique
to the modular-style package at present. One or two novel techniques allow extreme input impedances, but presently
at very high cost. One approach is to use MOS transistors with their 1013
-ohm input impedance; a second
is to use a varactor diode parametric amplifier arrangement on the input.
The input differential amplifier
is followed by ordinary voltage-gain stages, designed to bring the total voltage gain up to a very high value.
Terminals are usually brought out of the voltage-gain stage to allow the frequency and phase response of the op
amp to be tailored for special applications. This is usually done by adding external resistors and capacitors to
Since an operational amplifier is bipolar, the output can swing either positive or
negative with respect to ground. A dual power-supply system, one negative and one positive, is required.
The final op-amp stage is a low-impedance power-output stage, which may take the form of a single
emitter-follower, a push-pull emitter-follower, or a class-B power stage. This final circuit serves to make the
output loading and the over-all gain and frequency response independent. It also provides a useful level of output
power. THE MATH BEHIND THE OP AMP
The gain of an operational-amplifier circuit is
always chosen be much less than the open-loop gain of the amplifier itself. This allows the circuit response to be
precisely determined by the external feedback and input network impedances. Feedback is almost ways applied to the
inverting (-) input. This is negative feedback for any change in output tries to produce an opposing change in the
The feedback and input network impedances are normally chosen such that they are much larger than
the op amp's output impedance, much smaller than the op amp's input impedance, and such that the gain they require
for proper operation is much less than the amp's gain.
If these assumptions are met, the ratio of input to
output voltage (the gain of the circuit) will be given by:Circuit Gain =
For instance, the op-amp circuit of Fig. 5B has an input impedance of 1000 ohms and a feedback impedance of
10,000 ohms Its gain will be - 10k/1k = - 10. Any of the op amps of Figs. 2, 3, or 4 may be used for this circuit.
Some circuit analysis will show that the inverting input is always very near ground potential, and this point
is then called a virtual ground insofar as the input signals and output feedback are concerned. Thus the input
impedance to the circuit will exactly equal the input network impedance.
When capacitors are used in the
networks, the phase relationships between current and voltage must be taken into account. These differences in
phase allow such operations as differentiation, integration, and active network synthesis.
But isn't an op
amp a d.c. amplifier and don't d.c. amplifiers drift and have to be chopper-stabilized or otherwise compensated?
This certainly used to be true of all amplifiers, but today such techniques are reserved for extremely critical
circuits. The reasons for this lie in the input differential stage. It is now very easy to get an integrated
circuit differential amplifier stage to track within a millivolt or so over a wide temperature range. This is due
to the identical geometry, composition, and temperature of the input transistors.
Matched pairs of
ordinary transistors can track within a few millivolts with careful selection. FET's offer still drift
performance, as one bias point may be selected that is drift-free with respect to temperature over a very wide
range. Thus, chopper-stabilized systems are rarely considered today for most op-amp applications.
are three basic op-amp packages available today. The first type consists of specialized units used only for
precision analog computation and critical instrumentation circuits. These are priced into the hundreds and even
thousands of dollars for each category, and are not considered here. The second type is the modular package, and
usually consists of a black plug-in epoxy shell an inch or two on a side. Special sockets are available to
accommodate the many pins that protrude out the case bottom. The third package style uses the integrated circuit.
Here the entire op amp is housed in a flat pack, in-line epoxy, or TO-5 style package. (See lead photograph.)
Generally speaking, the modular units are being replaced in some cases by the integrateds, but at present,
each package style offers some clear-cut advantages. Table 1 compares the two packages. The IC versions offer low
cost, small size, and very low drift, while the modular versions offer higher input impedances, higher gain, and
higher output power capability.
Three low-cost readily available IC op amps appear in Figs. 2, 3, and 4.
Here, their schematics and major performance characteristics are compared. Devices similar to these at even lower
cost may soon be available.
A directory of op amp makers is given in Tables 2 and 3.
Industrial Op-Amp Applications
Table 2. Listing of modular-type operational-amp manufacturers.
Table 3. Listing of integrated-circuit op-amp manufacturers.
We can split the op-amp applications into roughly three
categories: the industrial circuits, the computer circuits, and the active network synthesis circuits. The
industrial circuits are "ordinary" ones, which will carryover into the consumer and commercial fields with little
The boxed copy (facing page) sums up the mathematics. An operational amplifier is often used in
conjunction with two passive networks, an input network, and a feedback network, both of which are normally
connected to the inverting input. The gain of the over-all circuit at any frequency is given by the equation
shown. It is simply the ratio of the feedback impedance to the input impedance at that frequency. For the circuits
shown, a low impedance path to ground must exist for all input sources to allow a return path for base current in
the two input transistors.
Fig. 5A shows an inverting gain-of-100 amplifier useful from d.c. to several
hundred kHz. The basic equation tells us the gain will be -10,000/100 = -100. The 100-ohm resistor on the "+"
input provides base current for the "+" transistor and does not directly enter into the gain equation. It may be
adjusted to obtain a desired drift or offset characteristic.
The higher the gain of the op amp, the closer
the circuit performance will be to the calculated performance. In the -of-100 amplifier, if the op amp gain is
1000, the gain error will be roughly 1 %. The exact value of the gain also depends upon the precision to which the
input and feedback components are selected.
Choosing different ratios of input and feedback impedances
gives us different gains. Fig. 5B shows a gain-of-10 amplifier with a d.c. to 2 MHz frequency response and a
1000-ohm input impedance.
Table 1. Comparison between integrated operational amplifiers and modular-type operational
We might ask at this point what we gain by using an op amp in this circuit instead of an ordinary single
transistor circuit. There are several important answers. The first is that the input and output are both
referenced to ground. Put in zero volts and you get out zero volts. Put in -400 millivolts and you get out +4
volts. Put in 400 millivolts you get out -4 volts. Secondly, the output impedance is very low and the gain will
not change if you change the load the op amp is driving, as long as the loading is light compared to the op amp's
output impedance. Finally, the gain is precisely 10, to the accuracy you can select the input and feedback
resistors, independent of temperature and power-supply variations. It is this precision and ease of control that
makes the operational amplifier configuration far superior to simpler circuitry.
If the output is
connected to the "-" input and an input directly drives the "+" input, the unity-gain voltage follower of Fig. 5C
results. This configuration is useful for following precision voltage references or other voltage sources that may
not be heavily loaded. The circuit is superior to an ordinary emitter-follower in that the offset is only a
millivolt or so instead of the temperature-dependent 0.6-volt drop normally encountered, and the gain is truly
unity and not dependent upon the alpha of the transistor used.
Fig. 5. Industrial op-amp circuits. (A) Gainof-100 inverting amplifier. (B) Gain-of-10
inverting amplifier. (C) Unity-gain high input Z amplifier. (D) Band-stop amplifier. (E) Band-pass amplifier. (F)
Precision ramp or linear saw-tooth generator. (G) Detector with low offset. (H) Logarithmic amplifier. (I) Voltage
comparator. (J) Sine-wave oscillator.
By making the gain of the op amp frequency-dependent,
various filter configurations are realized. For instance, Fig. 5D shows a band-stop amplifier. For very low and
very high frequencies, the series RLC circuit in the feedback network will be a very high impedance and the gain
will be -10,000/1000 = -10. At resonance, the series RLC impedance will be 100 ohms and the gain will be -100/1000
= -0.1. The gain drops by a factor of 100:1 or 40 deci\bels at the resonant frequency. The selection of the LC
ratio will determine bandwidth, while the LC product will determine the resonant frequency.
Fig. 5E does
the opposite, producing a response peak at resonance 100 times higher than the response at very high or very low
frequencies, owing to the very high impedance at resonance of a parallel LC circuit. More complex filter
structures may be used to obtain any reasonable filter function or response curve. Audio equalization curves are
readily realized using similar techniques.
Turning to some different applications, Fig. SF shows a precision ramp generator. Operation is based upon the
current source formed by the reference voltage and 1000-ohm resistor on the input. In any op-amp circuit, the
current that is fed back to the input must equal the input current, for otherwise the"-" input will have a voltage
on it, which would immediately be amplified, making the input and feedback currents equal.
current to a capacitor linearly charges that capacitor, producing a linear voltage ramp. The slope of the ramp
will be determined by the current and the capacitance, while the linearity will be determined by the gain of the
op amp. A sweep of 0.1-percent linearity is easily achieved. The output ramp is reset to zero by the switch and
the 10-ohm current-limiting resistor. For synchronization, S may be replaced by a gating transistor. A negative
input current produces a positive voltage ramp at the output. Note that the sweep linearity and amplitude is
independent of the output loading as long as the load impedance is higher than the output impedance of the op amp.
Ramps like this are often used in CRT sweep waveform generation, analog-to-digital converters, and similar
Silicon diodes normally have a 0.6-volt offset that makes them unattractive for detecting very
low signal levels. If a diode is included in the feedback path of an operational amplifier, this offset may be
reduced by the gain of the circuit, allowing low-level detection. Fig. 5G is typical. Here the gain to negative
input signals is equal to unity, while the gain to positive input signals is equal to 100. The diode threshold
will be reduced to 0.6 volt/100 = 6 millivolts.
Another diode op-amp circuit is that of Fig. 5H. Here the
logarithmic voltage-current relation present in a diode makes the feedback impedance decrease with increasing
input signals, reducing the circuit gain as the input current increases. The net result is an output voltage that
is proportional to the logarithm of the input, and the circuit is a logarithmic amplifier. This configuration only
works on negative-going inputs and is useful in compressing signals measuring decibels, and in electronic
multiplier circuits where the logarithms of two input signals are added together to perform multiplication.
An operational amplifier is rarely run "wide open", but Fig. 51 is one exception. Here the op amp serves
as a voltage comparator. If the voltage on the "-" input exceeds the "+" input voltage, the op amp output will
swing as negative as the supply will let it, and vice versa. A difference of only a few millivolts between inputs
will shift the output from one supply limit to the other. Feedback may be added to increase speed and produce a
snap action. One input is often returned to a reference voltage, producing alarm or a limit detector.
Op amps may also be used in groups. One example is the low-distortion sine-wave oscillator of Fig. 5J, in
which three op amps generate a precision sine wave. Both sine an cosine outputs, differing in phase by 90° are
produced. An external amplitude stabilization circuit is required, but not shown. Output frequency is determined
solely by resistor and capacitor values and their stability. Computer Circuits
The analog computer industry was the birthplace and once the only home of the operational amplifier. In fact the
name comes from the use of op amps to perform mathematical operations. Many of these circuits are of industry-wide
interest and use.
Perhaps the simplest op-amp circuit is the inverter. This is an op amp with identical
input and feedback resistors Whatever signal gets fed in, minus that signal appears the output, thus performing
the sign-changing operation.
Addition is performed by the circuit of Fig. 6A. Here the currents from
inputs E1, E2, and E3 are summed and the negative of their sum appears at the output. Since the negative input is
always very near ground because of feedback, there is no interaction among the three sources Resistor R is
adjusted to obtain the desired drift performance.
By shifting the resistor values around, the basic
summing circuit may also perform scaling and weighting operations. For instance, a 30,000-ohm feedback resistor
would produce an output equal to minus three times the sum of the inputs; a smaller feedback resistor would have
the opposite effect. By changing only one input resistor without changing the other, one input may be weighted
more heavily than the other. Thus, by a suitable choice of resistors, the basic summing circuit could perform such
operations as EOUT
= -0.5 (E1 + 3E2 + 0.6E3). Subtraction is performed by inverting one input signal and
Two very important mathematical operations are integration and differentiation. Integration
is simply finding the area under a curve, while differentiation involves finding the slope of a curve at a given
point. The op-amp integration circuit is shown in Fig. 6B, while the differentiation circuit is shown in Fig. 6C.
The integrator also serves as a low-pass filter, while the differentiator also serves as a high-pass filter, both
with 6 dB/octave slopes.
The differentiator circuit's gain increases indefinitely with frequency, which
obviously brings about high-frequency noise problems. The circuit cannot be used as shown. Fig. 6D shows a
practical form of differentiator in which a gainlimiting resistor and some high-frequency compensation have been
added to limit the high-frequency noise, yet still provide a good approximation to the derivative of the lower
These two circuits are very important in solving advanced problems, particularly mathematics involving
differential equations. Since most of the laws of physics, electronics, thermodynamics, aerodynamics, and chemical
reactions can be expressed in differential-equation form, the use of operation amplifiers for equation solution
can be a very valuable and powerful analysis tool.
Active Network Synthesis
Fig. 7. Operational amplifiers in active network synthesis. (A) One form of active filter. (B) A twin-T network
is identical to an LC parallel resonant circuit except for the "Q". (C) Circuit to realize "Q" of 14 without
using an inductor.
Perhaps the newest area in which operational amplifiers are
beginning to find wide use is in active network synthesis. There is increasing pressure in industry to minimize
the use of inductors. Inductors are big, heavy, expensive, and never obtained without some external field,
significant resistance, and distributed capacitance. Worst of all, no one has yet found any practical way to stuff
them into an integrated-circuit package. If we can find some circuit that obeys all the electrical laws of
inductance without the necessity of a big coil of wire and a core, we have accomplished our purpose. Operational
amplifiers are extensively used for this purpose.
One basic scheme is shown in Fig. 7 A. If two networks are connected around an op amp as shown, the gain
will equal the ratio of the transfer impedances of the two networks. Since we are using three-terminal networks,
and since the op amp is capable of adding energy to the circuit, we can do many things with this circuit that are
impossible with two-terminal passive resistors and capacitors.
Fig. 7B shows an interesting three-terminal
network called a twin-T circuit. It exhibits resonance in the same manner as an ordinary LC circuit does. It has
one limitation - its maximum "Q" is only 1/4. If we combine an op amp with a parallel twin- T network, we can
multiply the "Q" electronically to any reasonable level. A gain of 40 would bring the "Q" up to 10. We then have a
resonant "RLC" circuit of controllable center frequency and bandwidth with no large, bulky inductors required even
for low-frequency operation.
One example is shown in Fig. 7C where an operational amplifier is used to
realize a resonant effect and a "Q" of 14 at a frequency of 1400 Hz. As the desired "Q" increases, the tolerances
on the components and the gain become more and more severe. From a practical standpoint, value of "Q" greater than
25 are very difficult to realize at the present time. Note that the entire circuit shown can be placed in a space
much smaller than that occupied by the single inductor it replaces.
Fig. 6. Computer operational-amplifier circuits. (A) Addition. (B) Integration. (C)
Differentiation. (D) Practical operational-amplifier differentiator.