May 1967 Electronics World
[Table of Contents]People old and young
enjoy waxing nostalgic about and learning some of the history of early electronics. Electronics World was published
from May 1959 through December 1971.
As time permits, I will be glad to scan articles for you. All copyrights (if any) are hereby
acknowledged.

This article from the May 1967 edition of Electronics World shows you just how long the Frequency Electronics company has been around! In fact, here is an excerpt from their website: "Frequency Electronics, Inc. was founded in 1962 and is now a wellestablished public company in Long Island, New York, and trades on the NASDAQ Stock Exchange under the symbol FEIM." Mr. Irwin Math, who wrote the article, has surely retired by now. The discussion on short and longterm stability is as relevant today as it was 45 years ago.
See all the available Electronics World articles.Selecting Frequency and Time StandardsBy Irwin Math / Project Engineer, Frequency Electronics, Inc.
How precision oscillators and clocks are rated and exactly what they are capable of. A discussion of stability and other important standard specifications.
Highly precise frequency and time standards are becoming more and more widely used in today's sophisticated scientific world. The missile and space age demands, for example, are far in excess of the requirements of only a few years ago. In fact, the stability of the research laboratory's frequency standard of 10 years ago is now taken for granted in the oscillators of many types of modern industrial test equipment.
As a result, all too often the engineer or technician will specify a complex, ultrastable frequency standard when a much less stable one would have been sufficient for his application. Similarly, he can often mistakenly interpret a lower order oscillator as easily as one of much higher quality. For these reasons, the engineer and technician as well as anyone with even a casual interest in the measurement field should have a good of just how precision oscillators and clocks are rated and exactly what they are capable of doing.
LongTerm and ShortTerm Stability
In the "good old days", it was enough to ask for a 1MHz oscillator with a stability of ±0.001%. Anything better than 0.1% was considered rather good. But today things have changed. All but the simplest of oscillators that are used as standards are rated in parts per 10". For example, a 1MHz oscillator with a stability of ± 1 Hz is rated at 1 MHz ±1 part in 10^{6} or 1 part per million. Similarly, a good frequency standard may have a stability of ±1 part in 10^{10} The general expression for frequency stability is S=ΔF/F where F is the nominal frequency and ΔF is the allowable variation. Therefore, the actual frequency variation of our frequency standard (considering its output is 1 MHz nominal) is ±0.0001 Hz or ±1 x 10^{10} of the nominal frequency.
Fig. 1. Measuring longterm stability by means of peak readings.
However, this information is not enough. While it does indicate stability, it does not specify over what period of time this stability must be measured, The complete stability of a frequencystandard oscillator must be given in two parts: the long term and the short term.
The longterm stability of an oscillator is basically the average change in frequency over a long fixed period of time as compared to some absolute reference. Usually, longterm stability is measured in one of two ways. The first of these, as indicated in Fig. 1, depends on readings of frequency taken continuously for several days. The maximum peaktopeak deviation over any 24hour period is measured and the stability is then defined as ± onehalf this maximum. For example, since both oscillators in Fig. 1 have a peaktopeak variation of 1 part in 10^{8} per day, their longterm stability would be specified as ±5 parts per 10^{9} per day. Notice, though, that oscillator #2 has a much longer average rate of frequency change than does oscillator # 1. Therefore, while they both are ±5 parts in 10^{9} per day oscillators, oscillator #2 is obviously superior.
Fig. 2. Measuring longterm stability by average readings.
The second method, and by far the more accurate one, is based on the average change of frequency over a given time interval. As shown in Fig. 2, the stability of oscillators #1 and #2 is now determined by the slope of their average frequencies. Now it is easy to see that oscillator #2 is substantially better than oscillator #1.
Fig. 3. Automatic recording of an oscillator with a shortterm stability of plus or minus 5 parts in 10^{9} per second.
To further clarify the measurement and eliminate any remaining doubt, a few oscillator manufacturers incorporate both the average longterm frequency change and the daytoday change in their longterm stability specification. For example, a 1MHz oscillator such as the one shown in Fig. 4 with a rated longterm stability of ±1 part in 10^{10} is one whose maximum daily and average frequency will change by no more than ±1 cycle per 10 billion cycles per day or 0.0001 cycle per day.
The shortterm stability of an oscillator is its frequency stability over periods of time from a few seconds to fractions of a second. This type of specification is important when the oscillator is used as the source for a frequency multiplication system, especially into the thousands of MHz. If, for example, a 1MHz oscillator with a secondtosecond variation of ±1 part in 10^{6} were multiplied to 1000 MHz, the variation would now be ±1000 Hz per second.
As in longterm measurements, there are two general methods. One is similar to long term in that readings of frequency are taken. The time interval, however, is much shorter. Fig. 3 is a recording of an oscillator with a shortterm variation of ±5 parts in 10^{9} per second. Notice that in any 1second interval, the frequency never deviates by ±5 parts in 10^{9} from the nominal. This type of recording is used for intervals as low as 0.1 second. Smaller intervals require too fast a recorder speed and are measured by the second method.
This method involves a statistical approach. The oscillator to be measured is fed to a lownoise mixer along with a very stable reference frequency.
The difference of the two signals is then fed to a counter which measures the period (or wavelength) of this signal. A typical setup is shown in Fig. 5. The difference frequency actually triggers a gate, allowing a very stable 10MHz signal to drive the counter. Since the period of the difference signal determines how many cycles of 10 MHz will be fed into the counter, great accuracy can be achieved. Assuming that the difference signal is 1 Hz, this means that 10,000,000 cycles will pass into the counter through the gate for each cycle of input. Therefore, only 1/10,000,000 of a second change in the difference signal will cause the counter to indicate a change. Since such great resolution is possible by this technique, extremely short intervals of time can be measured and interpreted as shortterm stabilities.
Fig. 4. A typical highquality frequency standard which has a longterm stability of plus or minus 1 part in 10^{10}.
Usually an oscillator with good shortterm stability will not exhibit a good longterm characteristic and vice versa. As a result, where both long and shortterm stability must be as good as possible, the technique shown in Fig. 6 is used. A very good longterm standard and a very good shortterm standard are fed to a phase detector. The d.c. output of the phase detector is then fed back to a voltagevariable capacitor in the shortterm standard which causes its frequency to "lock" to the frequency of the longterm unit. This "phaselocking" technique now produces an output with excellent long and shortterm stabilities.
Fig. 5. Test setup employed for shortterm measurements.
The stability of an oscillator with changes in ambient operating temperature is another important factor to consider when specifying highstability oscillators. Fig. 7 is a curve of the temperature versus frequency characteristics of a typical highquality crystal. It can be seen that changes in crystal temperature result in significant changes in frequency.
It is therefore extremely important to isolate the crystal from the effects of varying temperatures. Vacuum bottles (dewars) are often employed in the highest stability units and, in most cases, the crystal itself is in a wellregulated, temperaturecontrolled oven.
Similarly, changes in operating voltage, line voltages, and load impedances are all important and should be considered when choosing oscillators. The effects of these parameters are stated in terms of the maximum frequency changes they produce in the oscillators' output.
Other Important Criteria
Some of the other more important criteria which should be considered when selecting equipment of this nature are:
1. Construction  the equipment should be able to withstand mechanical shock and also occupy the least amount of space, especially where it is to be part of a physically complex system.
2. Power consumption  in portable, airborne, or other such applications, it is desirable to obtain the lowest power consumption of the oscillators in order to realize the longest usable life.
3. Measurements should be the result of exhaustive tests on many units of the type to be used, where possible.
Finally, perhaps the most important "specification" to many technical personnel is cost. While mechanical construction and ambient temperature isolation will determine the cost of a unit to an extent, the primary cost factor is the ultimate stability of the unit. The greater the stability required (both long and shortterm) the more elaborate the circuitry required and better the crystal must be. For example, while a ±1 part in 10^{8} oscillator is available for $200, a ±1 part in 10^{10} oscillator can easily cost $2000.
Fig. 6. A phaselocked oscillator system is illustrated.
Fig. 7. Typical frequency vs. temperature characteristic for a highquality crystal. Oven is set to "turnoverpoint" temperature.
Posted 2/21/2012 