|More than 12,000 searchable pages indexed.|
Your RF Cafe
Airplanes and Rockets:
Figure 3-28.—Components of a sine wave.
Figure 3-29, view A, illustrates, the fundamental principle of TDY. Let's look at an example. Assume that a 3,000-hertz tone is applied to each of the six channels in the transmitter. Assume also that the rotating switch turns fast enough to sample, in turn, each of the six channels 2.4 times during each cycle of the 3,000-hertz tone. The speed of rotation of the switch must then be 2.4 ´ 3,000 or 7,200 rotations per second. This is the optimum sampling for a practical system.
Figure 3-29.—Fundamental principle of time-division multiplexing.
When the transmitter and receiver switches are synchronized, the signals will be fed in the proper sequence to
the receiver channels. The samples from transmitter channel one will be fed to receiver channel one. In this way,
many channels of audio are combined to form a single output (multiplexed) chain. Time spacing occurs between the components
of the separate channels. The chain is transmitted (via wire or radio path) to distant demultiplexing receivers. Each
receiving channel functions to select and reconstruct only the information included in the originally transmitted
In most present day applications, electronic switching is used as the sampling component. The main advantage to electronic sampling is the longer life of an electronic switch when compared to an electromechanical switch. We use a mechanical system in our example to make this concept easier for you to see.
Now let's look at figure 3-29, view B, where channel one is shown sampled four times. (This is the output of channel one in our transmitter.) Figure 3-29, view C, shows all six channels being sampled four times during each cycle. (This is the output of the rotating switch in our transmitter.) What you see here is a continuous, time-sharing waveform.
More than six channels (perhaps 24 or more) may be used. As we increase the number of channels, the width of each sample segment must be reduced. The problem with reducing the width of the pulse is that the bandwidth (BW) necessary for transmission is greatly increased. Decreasing the pulse width decreases the minimum required rise time of the sampling pulse and increases the required bandwidth. When you increase the number of channels, you increase the BW. The BW is also affected by the shape of the sampling pulse and the method used to vary the pulse.
Common methods of time-division multiplexing include PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (pam), PULSE WIDTH or PULSE DURATION MODULATION (PWM or PDM), PULSE POSITION MODULATION (ppm), and PULSE CODE MODULATION (PCM). We have been studying an example of pulse amplitude modulation. (These methods of TDM were discussed in NEETS, Module 12, Modulation Principles.)
Figure 3-30.—Block diagram of a frequency-division multiplexing system.
Multichannel broadcast and ship/shore terminations use TTY FDM. With this system, each channel of the composite tone package of the broadcast is assigned an audio frequency. By multiplexing TTY circuits, up to 16 circuits may be carried in any one of the 3,000 hertz multiplexed channels described above. Don't confuse the two types of multiplexing. In the first case, 3,000 hertz audio channels have been combined. In the second case, a number of dc TTY circuits are converted to tone keying and combined in a single 3,000-hertz audio channel. Figure 3-31 illustrates a 16-channel, TTY-multiplexing system. The output of the dc pulsed circuits is converted to audio keying. Each channel has a separate audio center frequency. Channel frequencies range from 425 hertz for the lowest channel to 2,975 hertz for the highest
channel. A mark in an individual TTY loop keys an audio tone 42.5 hertz below the center frequency. A space in the input signal keys an audio tone 42.5 hertz above the center frequency. Let's look at an example. The mark and space frequencies for channel one are calculated as 382.5 hertz and 467.5 hertz, respectively (425 ± 42.5). Combining these keyed tones into a composite signal results in a tone package within a standard 3,000-hertz bandwidth. By occupying no more than 3,000 hertz of the audio spectrum, the output signal is suitable for transmission via radio or landline.
Figure 3-31.—Block diagram of modulator units.
Q28. What is the function of a tone terminal set?
Q29. What are the two types of multiplexing?
Q30. What is the purpose of multiplexing?
FACSIMILE (fax) is a method of transmitting still images over an electrical communications system. The images, called "pictures" or "copy" in fax terminology, may be weather maps, photographs, sketches, typewritten or printed text, or handwriting. Figure 3-32 shows a facsimile transceiver. You must realize that the still image serving as the fax copy or picture cannot be transmitted instantly in its entirety. Three distinct operations are performed. These are (1) scanning, (2) transmitting, and (3) recording or receiving.
Figure 3-32.—Facsimile transceiver.
Scanning consists of subdividing the picture in an orderly manner into a large number of segments. This process
is accomplished in the fax transmitter by a scanning drum and phototube arrangement.
The picture you want to transmit is mounted on a cylindrical scanning drum. This drum rotates at a constant speed and at the same time moves longitudinally along a shaft. Light from an exciter lamp illuminates a small segment of the moving picture and is reflected by the picture through an aperture to a phototube. During picture transmission, the light crosses every segment of the picture as the drum slowly spirals past the fixed lighted area.
The amount of light reflected back to the phototube is a measure of the lightness or darkness of the segment of the picture being scanned. The phototube changes the varying amounts of light into electrical signals. These are used to amplitude modulate the constant frequency output of a local oscillator. The modulated signal is then amplified and sent to the radio circuits.
Signals received by the fax receiver are amplified and actuate a recording mechanism. This recorder makes a permanent recording (segment by segment) on paper. The paper is attached to a receiver drum similar to the one in the fax transmitter. The receiver drum rotates synchronously with the transmitter drum. Synchronization of the receiver and transmitter is done to reduce distortion. Synchronization is obtained by driving both receiver and transmitter drums with synchronous motors operating at the same speed. Drum rotation continues until the original picture is reproduced. The recording mechanism may reproduce the picture photographically by using a modulated light source shining on photographic paper or film. It may also reproduce directly by burning a white protective coating from specially prepared black recording paper.
The receiver drum is FRAMED with respect to the transmitter drum by a series of phasing pulses that are transmitted just before transmission. The pulses operate a clutch mechanism that starts the
scanning drum in the receiver. This ensures proper phasing with respect to the starting position of the scanning drum in the transmitter.
Figure 3-33 is a block diagram of the equipment necessary for radio facsimile operation. View A shows the receiving system. This system consists of a standard radio receiver, a frequency-shift converter, and a facsimile recorder. View B shows two systems for transmitting TIF signals. The upper row of blocks is for carrier-frequency shift transmission. This system consists of a facsimile transceiver, a keyer adapter, a frequency shift keyer and a transmitter capable of FSK emission. The lower row of blocks is for audio-frequency shift transmission and uses a fax transceiver, a radio modulator, and an AM transmitter.
Figure 3-33.—Radio facsimile systems.
SECURITY, QUALITY MONITORING, AND SAFETY
Security, quality monitoring, and safety are important areas that you must be aware of. If the fundamentals are
followed, you will see higher quality communications. You will also help meet the communications goals of the Navy.
Let's find out what these fundamentals are and what they will do for you.
Compromising emanations (CE) are, generally referred to as TEMPEST. These signals may be unintentional, data-related, or intelligence-bearing. If intercepted or analyzed, these signals could disclose classified information. TEMPEST problems are associated with material transmitted, received, handled, or otherwise processed by electrical information processing equipment or systems. Any electrical information processing device may cause problems. Even your electric typewriter or a large, complex data processor may emit interceptable compromising emanations. Some countermeasures taken to ensure against TEMPEST problems are listed below:
· Design of equipment in which CE is suppressed
· Approved installation criteria that limits interaction between classified and unclassified signal lines, power lines, grounds, equipment, and systems
· Low level keying and signaling
· Shielded enclosures for equipment installations
· Proper shipboard grounding of equipment, including ground straps
Transmission security includes all measures designed to protect transmission from interception, traffic analysis, and imitative deception. Every means of transmission is subject to interception. In radio transmission, it should be assumed that all transmissions are intercepted.
Speed Versus Security
Three fundamental requirements of a military communications system are reliability, security, and speed. Reliability is always first. Security and speed are next in importance and, depending on the stage of an operation, are interchangeable. During the planning phase, security is more important than speed. During the execution phase, speed sometimes passes security in importance.
Radio Transmission Security
When a message is transmitted by radio, the originator may know some of those who are receiving it, but will never know all of those who are receiving the message. You must assume that an enemy receives every transmission. Property prepared messages using modern cryptographic systems may prevent an enemy from understanding a message. However, they can still learn a lot. For example, as time for a planned operation approaches, the number of messages transmitted increases. An enemy then knows that something will occur soon, and their forces are alerted. Strict radio silence is the main defense against radio intelligence.
The amount of radio traffic is not the only indicator used by an enemy. Statistical studies of message headings, receipts, acknowledgments, relays, routing instructions, and services are also used by an enemy. Communications experts can often learn much about an opponent from these studies. Direction finders are another aid the enemy can use to determine where messages originate.
Radiotelephone networks are operated so frequently that many operators tend to be careless. There are too many instances of interception of vhf and uhf transmissions at distances of many thousands of miles. You may have occasion to work on or around this type of equipment. If you are ever required to bring any transmitter on the air for any purpose, you must be familiar with and use all the correct procedures.
Q31. The transmission of still images over an electrical communications system is known as what?
Q32. The term TEMPEST refers to what?
Q33. What are the three fundamental requirements of a military communications system?
Q34. Which of the above requirements is most important?
SHIPBOARD COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS QUALITY MONITORING (QMCS)
In recent years the volume of shipboard communications has increased greatly. This expansion has led to the shipboard installation of sophisticated equipment. Factors such as frequency accuracy and dc signal distortion are critical to the operation of communications systems. These systems demand precise initial lineup and monitoring to ensure satisfactory operations are maintained. System degradation is often caused by many small contributing factors. When these factors are added together, the system becomes unusable.
When you perform scheduled, logical checks that ensure continuous, optimum performance of shipboard communications systems, you are doing SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE. In many cases this maintenance prevents outages before they occur. Some of the scheduled checks will include the following:
· Transmitter/receiver frequency
· Transmitter power out
· Receiver sensitivity/bandwidth
· Primary power (voltage, current, cycles)
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)
Many complex Many complex electronic systems are installed aboard Navy ships. In modern ships, complex systems with higher power and greater sensitivity are being crowded into a restricted and corrosive area. Figure 3-34 is a Spruance class destroyer with its crowded (compact) communications environment. The ability of these systems to perform their individual functions without interference is known as ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY (EMC). EMC is concerned with the structure of the ship and its electrical and electronic system. Compact environment is a major limitation to the effectiveness of a total ship system concept.
Figure 3-34.—Total ship.
Operation of a total ship system in this unique shipboard environment presents a challenge to all concerned. You must always consider the effects that motion, temperature variations, and exposure to adverse elements will have on the performance of the total ship system. This is particularly true on those system components that are mounted topside.
On board ship, you will find much attention is given to keeping the topside cosmetically and mechanically shipshape. It is equally important to keep it electronically shipshape. Minor mechanical problems, such as loose connections, broken bond straps, or rusty junctions can cause serious communications problems. These sources of electromagnetic radiations reduce receiver performance and are known as ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE (EMI). Sources of EMI can be divided into the following broad categories:
· Functional. EMI can originate from any source designed to generate electromagnetic energy and which may create interference as a normal part of its operation. The interference may be unintentional or caused by other on board or adjacent platform systems. This interference also may be intentional or caused by electronic countermeasures (ECM).
· Incidental. EMI can originate from man-made sources. These are sources not designed specifically to generate electromagnetic energy but which do in fact cause interference. Examples of incidental EMI sources include power lines, motors, and switches.
· Natural. EMI can be caused by natural phenomena, such as electrical storms, rain particles, and solar and interstellar radiation. It is recognized by the following audible noises:
– Intermittent impulses of high intensity that are caused by nearby electrical storms
– Steady rattling or cracking caused by distant electrical storms
– Continuous noise of precipitation static caused by electrically charged rain drops
– A steady hiss at high frequencies caused by interstellar noise
· Hull-generated. EMI can be caused by the interaction of radiated signals with elements of the hull and rigging of a ship. (The functional signals themselves do not cause interference.)
The following areThe following are two general methods by which EMI is transmitted:
Conduction. Undesired energy from one equipment is coupled to interconnecting cables or components of another equipment. This energy is conducted via the wiring in the shielded enclosure that protects sensitive circuits. You will find proper design, adequate isolation, and shielding of cables and equipment can control this problem.
Radiation. Energy is beamed directly from the transmitting antenna, or source, to the victim receiving antenna. When this interference is picked up by a receiver, you have two solutions. Interfering energy can be eliminated at the source or you can filter, or blank it out at the victim equipment. Filtering is far less desirable. Interference may be on the same frequency as the desired signal and will not be eliminated without affecting the reception of all desired signals.
Most unprotected shipboard receivers are susceptible to EMI over a frequency range much wider than their normal bandpass. Off-frequency rejection rarely excludes strong, adjacent-channel signals. These signals enter the receiver and degrade receiver performance by being processed along with the desired, tuned signal. Usually, the presence of EMI will be apparent to you. It has a bad effect. Upon the desired signal quality, such as that in CROSS-MODULATION where a spurious response occurs when the carrier
of a desired signal intermodulates with the carrier of an undesired signal. Extremely strong, off-frequency signals may even burn out the sensitive front-end stages of a receiver. EMI also can degrade overall receiver performance in a less noticeable way. It does this by desensitizing the receiver front end. The noise level is raised and effectively lowers the signal to noise ratio and thus the sensitivity. This causes a decrease in desired signal amplification. For these reasons, shipboard receive systems are designed to include protective circuitry between the antenna and receiver to filter out off-frequency signals. This prevents or limits interference, desensitization, or burnout. Depending upon the system, these protective devices may include filters, multicouplers, preselectors, and so forth. These devices can minimize interference caused by inadequate frequency separation or poor physical isolation between transmit and receive antennas.
Q35. What is the purpose of QMCS?
Q36. What is EMI?
Q37. What are the two EMI transmission methods?
Radio-frequency (RF) transmitting systems with high-power transmitting tubes and high-gain antennas have increased the possibility of injury to personnel working in the vicinity.
An electromagnetic radiation hazard exists when electronic equipment generates a strong enough electromagnetic field to fall in a category listed below:
· Causes harmful or injurious effects to humans and wildlife
· Induces or otherwise couples currents and/or voltages of magnitudes large enough to initiate electroexplosive devices or other sensitive explosive components of weapons systems, ordnance, or other explosive devices
· Creates sparks large enough to ignite flammable mixtures or materials that must be handled in the affected areas These hazardous situations can be caused by a transmitter or antenna installation. These generate electromagnetic radiation in the vicinity of personnel, ordnance, or fueling operations in excess of established safe levels. Sometimes the existing electromagnetic radiation levels increase to a hazardous level. When personnel, ordnance, or fueling evolutions are located in an area that can be illuminated by electromagnetic radiation, hazardous situations may occur.
Electromagnetic radiation is hazardous to personnel in two ways. It can cause RF burns; and it can cause biological, thermal, and neurological effects to personnel (RADHAZ). Because of the differences in characteristics and safety precautions required for each of the two types, they will be discussed separately.
An RF burn hazard is a hazardous condition caused by the existence of radio frequency (RF) voltages in places where they are not intended to be. Any ship with high-power HF transmitters is susceptible. Potentially hazardous voltages have been found in many areas. Some of these areas are lifelines, vertical ladders, ASROC launchers, gun mounts, rigging for underway replenishment, and boat davits. Another of these areas is on aircraft tied down on carrier and helicopter flight decks.
Whether or not an induced voltage creates an RF burn hazard depends on whether personnel will come into contact with the object being energized. Generally, only the voltage between an object and the deck is important. The RF burn occurs when a person comes into contact with a source of RF voltage in a