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|The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is the authority
in the United States of America that creates and enforces the use of airwaves throughout the entire
radio frequency spectrum. This group of documents contains the entirety of the
FCC Part 15 regulations
that concern unlicensed radio frequency devices. As with all government documents, this material
is in the public domain and may be freely copied so long as the content is not changed. This copy
is provided as a convenience for RF Cafe visitors.
Click here for the Table of Contents.
[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 47, Volume 1] [Revised as of October 1, 2008] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 47CFR15.31]
CHAPTER I--FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION
PART 15_RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES--Table of Contents
Sec. 15.31 Measurement standards.
(a) The following measurement procedures are used by the Commission to determine compliance with the technical requirements in this part. Except where noted, copies of these procedures are available from the Commission's current duplicating contractor whose name and address are available from the Commission's Consumer and Governmental Affairs Bureau at 1-888-CALL-FCC (1-888-225-5322). (1) FCC/OET MP-2: Measurement of UHF Noise Figures of TV Receivers. (2) Unlicensed Personal Communication Service (UPCS) devices are to be measured for compliance using ANSI C63.17-1998: ``Methods of Measurement of the Electromagnetic and Operational Compatibility of Unlicensed Personal Communications Services (UPCS) Devices'', (incorporated by reference, see Sec. 15.38). This incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (3) Other intentional and unintentional radiators are to be measured for compliance using the following procedure excluding sections 18.104.22.168, 5.7, 9 and 14: ANSI C63.4-2003: ``Methods of Measurement of Radio-Noise Emissions from Low-Voltage Electrical and Electronic Equipment in the Range of 9 kHz to 40 GHz'' (incorporated by reference, see Sec. 15.38). This incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51.
Note to paragraph (a)(3): Digital devices tested to show compliance with the provisions of Sec. Sec. 15.107(e) and 15.109(g) must be tested following the ANSI C63.4 procedure described in paragraph (a)(3) of this section.
(b) All parties making compliance measurements on equipment subject to the requirements of this part are urged to use these measurement procedures.
Any party using other procedures should ensure that such other procedures can be relied on to produce measurement results compatible with the FCC measurement procedures. The description of the measurement procedure used in testing the equipment for compliance and a list of the test equipment actually employed shall be made part of an application for certification or included with the data required to be retained by the party responsible for devices authorized pursuant to a Declaration of Conformity or devices subject to verification. (c) For swept frequency equipment, measurements shall be made with the frequency sweep stopped at those frequencies chosen for the measurements to be reported. (d) Field strength measurements shall be made, to the extent possible, on an open field site. Test sites other than open field sites may be employed if they are properly calibrated so that the measurement results correspond to what would be obtained from an open field site. In the case of equipment for which measurements can be performed only at the installation site, such as perimeter protection systems, carrier current systems, and systems employing a ``leaky'' coaxial cable as an antenna, measurements for verification or for obtaining a grant of equipment authorization shall be performed at a minimum of three installations that can be demonstrated to be representative of typical installation sites. (e) For intentional radiators, measurements of the variation of the input power or the radiated signal level of the fundamental frequency component of the emission, as appropriate, shall be performed with the supply voltage varied between 85% and 115% of the nominal rated supply voltage. For battery operated equipment, the equipment tests shall be performed using a new battery. (f) To the extent practicable, the device under test shall be measured at the distance specified in the appropriate rule section. The distance specified corresponds to the horizontal distance between the measurement antenna and the closest point of the equipment under test, support equipment or interconnecting cables as determined by the boundary defined by an imaginary straight line periphery describing a simple geometric configuration enclosing the system containing the equipment under test. The equipment under test, support equipment and any interconnecting cables shall be included within this boundary. (1) At frequencies at or above 30 MHz, measurements may be performed at a distance other than what is specified provided: measurements are not made in the near field except where it can be shown that near field measurements are appropriate due to the characteristics of the device; and it can be demonstrated that the signal levels needed to be measured at the distance employed can be detected by the measurement equipment. Measurements shall not be performed at a distance greater than 30 meters unless it can be further demonstrated that measurements at a distance of 30 meters or less are impractical. When performing measurements at a distance other than that specified, the results shall be extrapolated to the specified distance using an extrapolation factor of 20 dB/decade (inverse linear-distance for field strength measurements; inverse- linear-distance-squared for power density measurements). (2) At frequencies below 30 MHz, measurements may be performed at a distance closer than that specified in the regulations; however, an attempt should be made to avoid making measurements in the near field. Pending the development of an appropriate measurement procedure for measurements performed below 30 MHz, when performing measurements at a closer distance than specified, the results shall be extrapolated to the specified distance by either making measurements at a minimum of two distances on at least one radial to determine the proper extrapolation factor or by using the square of an inverse linear distance extrapolation factor (40 dB/decade). (3) The applicant for a grant of certification shall specify the extrapolation method used in the application filed with the Commission. For equipment subject to Declaration of Conformity or verification, this information shall be retained with the measurement data.
(4) When measurement distances of 30 meters or less are specified in the regulations, the Commission will test the equipment at the distance specified unless measurement at that distance results in measurements being performed in the near field. When measurement distances of greater than 30 meters are specified in the regulations, the Commission will test the equipment at a closer distance, usually 30 meters, extrapolating the measured field strength to the specified distance using the methods shown in this section. (5) Measurements shall be performed at a sufficient number of radials around the equipment under test to determine the radial at which the field strength values of the radiated emissions are maximized. The maximum field strength at the frequency being measured shall be reported in the equipment authorization report. This paragraph shall not apply to Access BPL equipment on overhead medium voltage lines. In lieu thereof, the measurement guidelines established by the Commission for Access BPL shall be followed. (g) Equipment under test shall be adjusted, using those controls that are readily accessible to or are intended to be accessible to the consumer, in such a manner as to maximize the level of the emissions. For those devices to which wire leads may be attached by the consumer, tests shall be performed with wire leads attached. The wire leads shall be of the length to be used with the equipment if that length is known. Otherwise, wire leads one meter in length shall be attached to the equipment. Longer wire leads may be employed if necessary to interconnect to associated peripherals. (h) For a composite system that incorporates devices contained either in a single enclosure or in separate enclosures connected by wire or cable, testing for compliance with the standards in this part shall be performed with all of the devices in the system functioning. If an intentional radiator incorporates more than one antenna or other radiating source and these radiating sources are designed to emit at the same time, measurements of conducted and radiated emissions shall be performed with all radiating sources that are to be employed emitting. A device which incorporates a carrier current system shall be tested as if the carrier current system were incorporated in a separate device; that is, the device shall be tested for compliance with whatever rules would apply to the device were the carrier current system not incorporated, and the carrier current system shall be tested for compliance with the rules applicable to carrier current systems. (i) If the device under test provides for the connection of external accessories, including external electrical input signals, the device shall be tested with the accessories attached. The device under test shall be fully exercised with these external accessories. The emission tests shall be performed with the device and accessories configured in a manner that tends to produce maximized emissions within the range of variations that can be expected under normal operating conditions. In the case of multiple accessory external ports, an external accessory shall be connected to one of each type of port. Only one test using peripherals or external accessories that are representative of the devices that will be employed with the equipment under test is required. All possible equipment combinations do not need to be tested. The accessories or peripherals connected to the device being tested shall be unmodified, commercially available equipment. (j) If the equipment under test consists of a central control unit and an external or internal accessory(ies) (peripheral) and the party verifying the equipment or applying for a grant of equipment authorization manufactures or assembles the central control unit and at least one of the accessory devices that can be used with that control unit, testing of the control unit and/or the accessory(ies) must be performed using the devices manufactured or assembled by that party, in addition to any other needed devices which the party does not manufacture or assemble. If the party verifying the equipment or applying for a grant of equipment authorization does not manufacture or assemble the central control unit and at least one of the accessory
devices that can be used with that control unit or the party can demonstrate that the central control unit or accessory(ies) normally would be marketed or used with equipment from a different entity, testing of the central control unit and/or the accessory(ies) must be performed using the specific combination of equipment which is intended to be marketed or used together. Only one test using peripherals or accessories that are representatve of the devices that will be employed with the equipment under test is required. All possible equipment combinations are not required to be tested. The accessories or peripherals connected to the device being tested shall be unmodified, commercially available equipment. (k) A composite system is a system that incorporates different devices contained either in a single enclosure or in separate enclosures connected by wire or cable. If the individual devices in a composite system are subject to different technical standards, each such device must comply with its specific standards. In no event may the measured emissions of the composite system exceed the highest level permitted for an individual component. For digital devices which consist of a combination of Class A and Class B devices, the total combination of which results in a Class A digital device, it is only necessary to demonstrate that the equipment combination complies with the limits for a Class A device. This equipment combination may not be employed for obtaining a grant of equipment authorization or verifying a Class B digital device. However, if the digital device combination consists of a Class B central control unit, e.g., a personal computer, and a Class A internal peripheral(s), it must be demonstrated that the Class B central control unit continues to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device with the Class A internal peripheral(s) installed but not active. (l) Measurements of radio frequency emissions conducted to the public utility power lines shall be performed using a 50 ohm/50 uH line- impedance stabilization network (LISN).
Note: Receivers tested under the transition provisions contained in Sec. 15.37 may be tested with a 50 ohm/5 [mu]H LISN.
(m) Measurements on intentional radiators or receivers, other than TV broadcast receivers, shall be performed and, if required, reported for each band in which the device can be operated with the device operating at the number of frequencies in each band specified in the following table:
------------------------------------------------------------------------ Frequency range over which device Number of Location in the range operates frequencies of operation ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1 MHz or less...................... 1 Middle. 1 to 10 MHz........................ 2 1 near top and 1 near bottom. More than 10 MHz................... 3 1 near top, 1 near middle and 1 near bottom. ------------------------------------------------------------------------
(n) Measurements on TV broadcast receivers shall be performed with the receiver tuned to each VHF frequency and also shall include the following oscillator frequencies: 520, 550, 600, 650, 700, 750, 800, 850, 900 and 931 MHz. If measurements cannot be made on one or more of the latter UHF frequencies because of the presence of signals from licensed radio stations or for other reasons to be detailed in the measurement report, measurements shall be made with the receiver oscillator at a nearby frequency. If the receiver is not capable of receiving channels above 806 MHz, the measurements employing the oscillator frequencies 900 and 931 MHz may be omitted. (o) The amplitude of spurious emissions from intentional radiators and emissions from unintentional radiators which are attenuated more than 20 dB below the permissible value need not be reported unless specifically required elsewhere in this part. (p) In those cases where the provisions in this section conflict with the measurement procedures in paragraph (a) of this section and the procedures were implemented after June 23, 1989,
the provisions contained in the measurement procedures shall take precedence.
[54 FR 17714, Apr. 25, 1989, as amended at 56 FR 13083, Mar. 29, 1991; 57 FR 24990, June 12, 1992; 57 FR 33448, July 29, 1992; 58 FR 37430, July 12, 1993; 58 FR 51249, Oct. 1, 1993; 61 FR 14502, Apr. 2, 1996; 62 FR 41881, Aug. 4, 1997; 62 FR 45333, Aug. 27, 1997; 63 FR 36602, July 7, 1998; 63 FR 42278, Aug. 7, 1998; 65 FR 58466, Sept. 29, 2000; 68 FR 68545, Dec. 9, 2003; 69 FR 54034, Sept. 7, 2004; 70 FR 1373, Jan. 7, 2005]