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Oscillator, Frequency Source & Synthesizer Design

Designing low-power, low-phase-noise, compact frequency synthesizers is not an easy task. Even with the plethora of synthesizer ICs available these days, it still takes an experienced designer to successfully produce a high performance tunable synthesizer or fixed frequency oscillator source. Here are a few good resources to help you along, and just in case you decide to let a pro do it for you, a couple advertisements from companies who know how to get the job done.

Oscillators, Frequency Sources & Synthesizers Manufacturers & Service


A Brief Introduction to Voltage Controlled Crystal Oscillator (VCXO) Design |
From Spread Spectrum Scene.

Agilent EEsof EDA Applications: Oscillators |
Applications information.

A History of the Quartz Crystal Industry in the USA |
By Virgil E. Bottom.

Analysis and Design of Negative Impedance LC Oscillators Using Bipolar Transistors |
Abstract by Jing-Hong Conan Zhan, Kyle Maurice, Jon Duster, and Kevin T. Kornegay.

A Negative Differential Resistance Oscillator with a Negistor |
From JLN Labs.

A Novel Model on Phase Noise of Ring Oscillator Based on Last Passage Time |
Abstract by Bosco H. Leung.

Basic Crystal Oscillator Design Considerations |
From Caliber Electronics, Inc.

Basic PIC16/17 Oscillator Design |
Application note by Dan Matthews, Microchip.

Basic PICmicro® Oscillator Design |
Application note from Microchip.
The Blocking Oscillator |
Composed by J. B. Calvert.

Crystal Oscillator |
Application note from Chrontel.

Crystal Oscillator Basics and Crystal Selection for rfPICTM and PICmicro® Devices |
Application note Steven Bible, Microchip Technology Inc.

Crystal Oscillator Circuit Design |
Application note from MX·COM, Inc.

Design Guidelines for Quartz Crystal Oscillators |
Technical note from Statek.

Early Communication Between Systems Designers and Crystal Oscillator Manufacturers Yields Optimum Price/Performance/Time-To-Market Benefit |
From MPD, by Roger Burns, Fox Electronics.

Fast Start-Up Oscillator (FOX) Boosts Superhet Performance |
Abstract by Maxim Integrated Products, Dallas Semiconductor.

FlashFlex51 Microcontroller Oscillator Circuit Design Considerations |
Application note from Silicon Storage Technology, Inc.

General Oscillator Information |

Hartley Oscillators |
By Ian C. Purdie, VK2TIP of

"How to Design RF Circuits" - Oscillators |
By Andrew Dearn.

Internal RC Oscillator Calibration |
Application note by Chris Valenti, Microchip Technology Inc.

Low Distortion Crystal Oscillator |
Data from Wenzel Associates, Inc.

Low-Noise Local Oscillator Design Techniques using a DLL-based Frequency Multiplier for Wireless Applications |
Dissertation by by George Chien.

Making Your Oscillator Work |
Application note by Brett Duane, Microchip Technology Inc.

MC145151-2 and MC145152-2 PLL Frequency Synthesizers (CMOS) |
Technical data from Freescale Semiconductor.

Negative Resistance Oscillator with Homemade Tunnel Diode |
By Nyle Steiner, K7NS.

OCXOs - Oven-Controlled Crystal Oscillators |
Data from Wenzel Associates, Inc.

On-Chip Oscillator Design |
Application note from Zilog Integrated Circuits.

Oscillator Basics |
By Ian C. Purdie, VK2TIP of

Oscillators |
Electrical Engineering Training Series by Integrated Publishing.

Oscillators 101: What Every Engineer Should Know about Crystal Controlled Oscillators |
By Louis Bradshaw, Fox Electronics.

Oscillators for Communications Applications: Basic Operation and Available Types |
By Bruce Clark, Fox Electronics.

Oscillators for Microcontrollers |
Application note from Intel Corporation.

PICmicro Microcontroller Oscillator Design Guide |
Application note from Microchip.

Pierce Crystal Oscillator Design |
From Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, by Dr. James R. Lyall.

Practical PICmicro® Oscillator Analysis and Design |
Application note by Ruan Lourens, Microchip Technology Inc.

Quartz Crystal Resonators and Oscillators | VIG-TUTORIAL.PDF
For Frequency Control and Timing Applications - a tutorial by John R. Vig, U.S. Army Communications-Electronics Command.

RC Phase Shift Oscillator | Phase Shift Oscillator/RC Phase Shift Oscillator1.html
Experiment from Visionics.

Recent Developments in Standing-Wave Oscillator Design: Review |
Abstract by William Andress and Donhee Ham, Harvard University.

Relaxation Oscillators |
The 555 Timer, Op-Amp Oscillators, the UJT, the PUT, the NE-2 and TTL oscillator packages, composed by J. B. Calvert.

Resonant Frequency of a Colpitts Oscillator |
From Circuit Exchange International.

Selecting an Oscillator for Telecom |
By Roger Burns, Fox Electronics.

Simulation and Design of RF Oscillators |
Abstract by L. Eichinger, F. Sischka, G. Olbrich, and R. Weigel, Agilent Technologies, Germany.

Sine Wave Oscillators |
The Wien bridge oscillator, Pierce crystal oscillator, Hartley, Colpitts and tuned-gate oscillators, composed by J. B. Calvert.

Specifying Crystal Oscillators | Crystal Oscillators.pdf
Data from Isotemp Research Inc.

Specifying Quartz Crystals |
Application note from Dallas Semiconductor, Maxim Integrated Products.

TCXOs - Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillators |
Data from Wenzel Associates, Inc.

Timekeeping Accuracy, Automatic and Affordable |
Abstract by Maxim Integrated Products, Dallas Semiconductor. 

Tuning VFOs With A PN-Junction |
From QRP Homebuilder.

Tutorial-4: Oscillator Design |
From Electrical Engineering Department (ISY), Linköpings University.

UART Crystal Oscillator Design Guide |
Application note by Reinhardt Wagner, EXAR Corporation.

Understanding Basic Terms in Crystal Oscillator Specifications |
Article by Jim Northcutt, Fox Electronics.

Understanding VCO Concepts |
From Mini-Circuits.

Using The 16 MHz Crystal Oscillator |
Application note By Connie Cheung and Michael Kjar, Freescale Semiconductor.

VCXOs - Voltage-Controlled Crystal Oscillators |
Data from Wenzel Associates, Inc.

Wien Bridge Oscillator |
From eCircuit Center.

XOs - Non-Compensated Crystal Oscillators |
Data from Wenzel Associates, Inc.