Here is the "Electricity  Basic Navy Training Courses" (NAVPERS 10622) in its
entirety. It should provide one of the Internet's best resources for people
seeking a basic electricity course  complete with examples worked out. See
copyright. See
Table of Contents.
¶ U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE; 1945  618779
CHAPTER 18
ELECTRICAL METERS
WHY METERS?
What is the most important fact to know when you are filling an automobile tire? The air pressure within the
tire, of course. And, how is this air pressure measured? By a "tire gage"  a simple airpressure METER. Try to
fill a tire without a gage. Nine times out of ten the tire is too hard or too soft. The airpressure meter is your
"eye" to "see" and measure air pressure. In a sense, all meters are "eyes" specially developed to see and measure
invisible forces and quantities.
The speed of a ship is measured by a taffrail log or a tachometer  both are
meters. Boiler pressure is read directly from a meter. In gunnery, both range and elevation are calculated by
meters. All meters collect data INSIDE a system and deliver it to the "OUTSIDE where it can be used. Meters answer
the question, "how much?"
In an electrical system, "how much?" is asked about four quantities  CURRENT, VOLTAGE, RESISTANCE, and
POWER. And four kinds of meters measure these quantities  ammeters, voltmeters, ohmmeters, and wattmeters. Each
meter's name indicates its use.
Every conductor, every motor, every circuit of any kind has a RATED
current load. Exceed this rated load and you ask for trouble  heat develops, connections melt, and insulation
burns. AMMETERS tell you exactly how much current is flowing  they forewarn you of overload.
Each
insulation has a voltage rating. And 120volt insulation will not stand 240 volts. It's like trying to put 70
pounds of air pressure in a bicycle tire rated at 35 pounds. Something lets loose. Motors are built to operate at
a definite voltage of 110, 220, or 440 volts. If you try to operate a motor above or below its rated voltage, it
either "burns out" or gives such poor service that it's useless. VOLTMETERS keep you informed of the voltage of
every line and every generator aboard ship. Resistance and power can always be calculated from ammeter and
voltmeter readings. R = E/I and P = EI. However, OHMMETERS and WATTMETERS, which read these values directly, are
handier  and they are built to do your dividing and multiplying for you.
WHAT METERS DO
Meters have been compared to your eyes  remember they are just. about as delicate. A good meter costs much
more than a good watch. Every meter is built to measure quantities within a definite range. And, if you want your
meters to stay accurate, don't drop them and don't overload them. An outboard motor is a good LITTLE engine, but,
it won't drive a destroyer. Neither will a 10ampere ammeter measure 100 amperes.
One thing that makes the
study of meters easy is the fact that ALL METERS MEASURE CURRENT. Yes, the voltmeter, ohmmeter, and wattmeter all
measure current  because the voltage, the resistance, and the power are ALL PROPORTIONAL TO THE CURRENT. The
CURRENT in a voltmeter gives an accurate picture of how much VOLTAGE is pushing that current. The CURRENT in an
ohmmeter tells you exactly how much RESISTANCE is holding that current back. Power is the product of E and I, and
the amount of CURRENT, therefore, controls the amount of power.
Although all meters measure currentthey are
not all calibrated (scaled) in amperes. Each meter has a scale to read the units it is meant to measure. Ammeters
read directly in amperes, voltmeters read volts, ohmmeters read ohms, and wattmeters read watts.
HOW THEY DO THE JOB
Current produces three effects on an electrical circuit. All three effects are used in meter construction. The
three current effects are  HEAT, MAGNETISM, and MOTOR ACTION. The STRENGTH of each one of these effects depends
on the amount of current. There are three types of meters built  each type measures one of the current effects.
And although it is the effect which is measured, the STRENGTH OF THE EFFECT is an accurate gage of the STRENGTH OF
THE CURRENT.
HOT WIRE METERS
The HOT WIRE METERS use the heatproducing effect of current. As current flows in a conductor, the friction
produces heat. The stronger the current, the greater the heat. This type meter uses a high resistance wire that
expands a great deal when it is heated. When the wire cools, it shrinks back to normal length.
Figure 187
shows a hot wire meter. Notice that the high resistance wire has become heated and expanded by the current flowing
in it. The slack in the wire allows the spring to pull the indicator needle to the right. In this way, the needle
is measuring the expansion of the wire. (Get the idea  heat effect is measured.) And this expansion is
proportional to the SQUARE of the current in the Wire.
Figure 187.  Hot wire meter.
If the slack in the wire allows the needle to move onehalf inch for the first ampere of current, then the
scale behind the needle cannot be calibrated in equal spaces. In this particular meter, the scale is calibrated in
unequal divisions. But, because the heat produced is proportional to the square of the amount of current, each
division stands for the same amount of current. A hot wire meter would have much larger amounts of current
calibrated on the righthand end of the scale. A particular scale might read something like this  1 ampere, 2
amperes, 3 amperes, 14 amperes, all spaced further apart. The lefthand end is called a CRAMPED or COMPRESSED
scale.
A.C. and D.C. produce equal amounts of heat per ampere, therefore, the HOT WIRE METERS CAN BE USED ON
EITHER A.C. OR D.C.
MAGNETIC METERS
MAGNETIC METERS make use of the magnetic flux effect of a current traveling in a conductor. There are two
general types of magnetic meter  the D'ARSONVAL or MOVABLE COIL type and the MOVABLE IRON type.
Figure 188.  D'Arsonval type meter.
The D'Arsonval type consists of a strong Vshaped, permanent magnet mounted in a stationary frame. Notice,
in figure 188, that the pole pieces of this magnet are circular. This shape insures an even distribution of flux
from the permanent magnet. In the center of the space between the pole pieces is mounted an iron core  also
stationary. This iron core is small so that a small movable coil can turn in the air space between the core and
the permanent magnet.
The movable coil carries the current' of the circuit, and has the indicator needle
attached. When current flows in the coil, it acts like the armature of a motor. The field of the coil reacts with
the field of the permanent magnet, producing torque. The action is illustrated in figure 189. Note that the iron
core preserves much of the flux of the permanent magnet. In this drawing, the coil is represented by only one turn
of wire. Actually the coil contains many turns  20 or more.
Figure 189.  D'Arsonval action.
The feeders for the movable coil are the two spiral springs shown in figure 188. They do two jobs 
conduct the current to the coil and ACT AGAINST THE COIL'S TORQUE. Thus, the amount of turning produced is
proportional to the combined effect of the torque AND the opposition of these springs. As the current increases;
the torque becomes stronger and the amount of turn is greater. The indicator needle is carried across the scale as
the coil turns.
The scale is a LINEAR " calibration. That is, the divisions are of equal size and
represent equal amounts of current. For example, they might read 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 amperes. A linear scale can be used
because the amount of magnetic effect or torque produced is DIRECTLY proportional to the strength of the current.
The D'Arsonval type meter is extremely sensitive. In fact, it is the best action to use in the sensitive
galvanometer. In order to make full use of the sensitivity and accuracy of this meter, the shaft holding the coil
runs in jeweled bearings. Also, the weight of the indicator needle is counterbalanced by a weight threaded on the
needle's other end. This cancels any gravitational torque which might be added to the coil's torque.
Since
this meter depends on motor action  current in one direction  it can be used ONLY ON D.C.
The MOVABLE
IRON type of meter has one marked advantage over the D'Arsonval type. It can be used on EITHER D.C. or A.C.
Follow the movable iron action through each diagram of figure 190. A shows two pieces of iron held in a "dead"
coil. No action! B shows what happens when the coil is energized by d.c. The Coil Hand Rule tells you that
polarity is induced in the iron as shown. Like poles are produced on adjacent ends of the iron pieces. Repulsion
throws the two pieces of iron away from each other. C shows that A.C. produces the same effect  either norths or
souths repel with equal force. D is a duplicate of A except that one piece of iron is permanently attached to the
inside of the coil. When the coil is energized with a.c. or d.c. as in E, the remaining piece of iron " free to
moveis repelled to the opposite side of the coil.
F is the developed meter as it actually is. The movable
piece of iron and the indicator needle are mounted on a jeweled shaft. This shaft permits the movable iron to move
only rotationally. The amount of current in the coil determines the amount of repulsion and the amount of
rotation. And the amount of rotation controls the indicator needle's.
The movable iron meter is a honey 
it works on A.C. or D.C. It is almost as sensitive as the D'Arsonval type. And like the D'Arsonval type, the
movable iron type has a spiral spring to oppose torque and to restore the needle to the zero point.
Figure 190.  Movable iron action.
DYNAMOMETER METERS
The DYNAMOMETER type meter uses the motor action of two fields for measuring current. The first field is set
up by two large stationary coils (the heavy coils of figure 191). The second field is set up by a small movable
coil pivoted in the center of the large coils. Notice, in figure 191, that this light coil has opposing spiral
springs and carries the needle indicator on its shaft.
The current to be measured flows in BOTH coils.
Since the current in BOTH the stationary and movable coils is the SAME CURRENT, the POLARITIES OF THE COILS ARE
ALWAYS THE SAME. Repulsion is produced and the movable coil turns.
This meter can be used on d.c.  it
acts just like a motor. It also can be used on a.c. since the polarities of both its coils REVERSE TOGETHER on
A.C.
Figure 191.  Dynamometer action.
THERMOCOUPLE METERS
A fourth type of meter makes use of the voltage produced by a thermocouple  really a heat  type meter. This
type meter is illustrated in figure 192. The joined end of the thermocouple T, is wrapped in a coil of high
resistance wire C. Then the circuit current is sent through this coil. The resulting heat generates a voltage in
the thermocouple proportional to the current which produced the heat.
A regular type meter  usually the
D'Arsonval type  measures the current produced by the generated voltage. The scale is adjusted and calibrated to
read NOT the GENERATED voltage or current but the current of the heating COIL.
This meter seems
complicated and tricky. It is, but it permits the use of a sensitive D'Arsonval type for measuring a.c.  and that
makes it worthwhile.
Figure 192.  Thermocouple meter.
WHICH METER WHERE?
Why all these types of meters? For the same reason that there are both tug boats and battle . ships. Each can
do some one job best.
The D'Arsonval is extremely sensitive but it can be used only on d.c.
The
movable iron is not as sensitive as the D'Arsonval but it can be used on d.c. or a.c.
The hot wire is not
particularly sensitive and it takes time to heat the high resistance wire. But it can be used on all d.c. or a.c.
circuits including radio circuits.
The thermocouple is complicated but it can be used on d.c. or a.c. Also
it is a good meter for radio work. It is fairly accurate and it adopts the sensitive D'Arsonval movement to the
measurement of a.c.
The dynamometer is the most sensitive a.c.d.c. meter. However, it cannot be used on the
high frequencies of radio circuits.
As the various types of meters have been pictured, they are operating
as galvanometerssensitive, and carrying the full current of the line. In practical use, any type of meter can be
CONNECTED to act as an ammeter, voltmeter, or ohmmeter. The whole problem is to connect the meter to do its job,
BUT not "burn out" the meter.
AMMETERS
Ammeters measure the CURRENT IN A LINE. Therefore, they must be in series with the line and carryall the line
current or a DEFINITE FRACTION SHUNT of the total line current. If the line current is small  a fraction of an
ampere, then the meter can usually handle all of it. But seldom do you deal with such small currents. Except in
some radio circuits, you'll have to measure currents far too heavy for the light coils of meters. To reduce the
current to a safe value in the meter coils a shunt is connected around the meter. This shunt is simply a parallel
path carrying most of the current. In this way, the meter carries only a DEFINITE SMALL FRACTION of the total
current. Figure 193 shows an ammeter with an INTERNAL shunt.
Figure 193.  Ammeter with internal shunt.
Notice that there are two paths for current within the meter. One through the meter coils, the other
through the shunt. Say that the resistance of the meter is 1 ohm, the resistance of the shunt is 0.01 ohm, and the
total current is 101 amperes. The ratio of current in the meter to current in the shunt is 100 to 1. That is, the
meter handles 1 ampere while the shunt carries 100 amperes. The total circuit  meter and shunt  carries the
line's current of 101 amperes. Now  just what does the meter read  1 ampere, 100 amperes, or 101 amperes? It
will read 101 amperes BECAUSE the scale has been calibrated for a 101 MULTIPLIER. The ratio of the TOTAL current
to the METER current is the multiplier.
Internal shunts  the shunts inside a meter case  are fixed.
Regardless of what circuit the meter is used in, the shunt is a part of that circuit, and the meter scale is
calibrated to read the actual meter current times, the multiplier.
EXTERNAL shunts are shunts connected OUTSIDE the meter box  on the back of switchboards, on the outside of
the meter box  or, if portable, any place convenient. Figure 194 shows three types of shunt. A is a switchboard
shunt. B is it shunt for mounting on meters. And C is a portable and adjustable shunt.
If the shunts are
outside the meters, they are easily changed and the meter's range can be increased by merely changing a shunt.
For example, an ammeter with a range of 010 amperes has a resistance of 0.1 ohm. The range is to be increased to
0100 amperes. What size shunt is required?
Just looking at the problem tells you that the multiplier is
10  because you are increasing the capacity TENFOLD. By doing a little reasoning you know that 1/10th of the
current will go through the meter and 9/10ths through the shunt. Therefore, the shunt must have 1/9th as much
resistance as the meter  it carries 9 times as much current. The resistance of the shunt is 1/9th of 0.1 ohm or 
0.1 x 1/9 = 0.1/9 = 0.011 ohms.
Shunt sizes can be reasoned out this way  just remember that you
have a simple twoway parallel circuit. One branch is the meter  the resistance is fixed. The other branch is the
shunt  you set this resistance to fit the job. The resistance must below enough so that most of the current will
be kept away from the meter. But the resistance of the shunt must also be an EASY FRACTION of the total
resistancebecause an easy fraction gives you a handy multiplier.
Figure 194.  External shunts.
Here is the formula for calculating shunt resistance 
R
_{s} = R
_{m}/(N1)
When
R
_{s}
= the resistance of the shunt;
R
_{m} = the resistance of the meter;
N = the
multiplier.
Using this formula for the solution of the example above 
R
_{s} = R
_{m}/(N1)
R
_{s} = 0.1/(101) = 0.1/9 = 0.011 ohm.
Let's say this ammeter is used to measure an 80
ampere circuit. Here is what happens  80 amperes are in the line and passing through the meter AND shunt. Because
the shunt has only 9/10th the resistance of the meter, the shunt carries 9 times the current of the meter, or
9/10ths of the total current. Hence, the shunt will carry 9/10ths x 80 = 72 amperes and the meter only 8 amperes.
And the meter reads only 8 amperes. BUT the multiplier is 10  so the TOTAL current is the reading (8 amperes)
times the multiplier (10) or 8 x 10 = 80 amperes.
Remember that ammeters and their shunts must carry the
ENTIRE line current. Wherever this current is reasonably large  1 ampere or more  a shunt must be used to
protect the meter coils. It's true that an ammeter coil could be built to carry the full line current  but it
would have to be made of heavy wire. Such a coil would weigh too much  the meter would be cumbersome and not very
sensitive. The only ammeter which can carry the full line current is the hot wire type  no coils are used.
You will run across ammeters with multiple scales. These are meters using more than one shunt.
Figure 195 shows an ammeter with two shunts. This meter has three different scales. The first scale is 01 ampere
 no shunt is used. The second scale is 010 amperes  the first shunt is used. And the third scale is 0100
amperes  the second shunt is used.
Figure 195.  Multiple shunt ammeter.
The resistances of the shunts are shown in the figure. You can see that multipliers of 10 and 100 were
used in calculating the resistance of each. Use the formula for finding shunt resistance  prove the values given
in figure 195.
CAUTION
Ammeters are extremely LOW RESISTANCE instruments. They are designed to be connected IN SERIES WITH THE LINE
AND ITS LOAD. If you should connect an ammeter across the line, or in parallel with a load, the full line voltage
will force a tremendous surge of current through, the delicate coils. The burning action is so fast that line
fuses cannot melt in time to save the meter.
REMEMBER  AMMETERS ARE ALWAYS CONNECTED IN SERIES WITH A
LOAD.
VOLTMETERS
Look at this formula: E = I/R. It describes the voltage necessary to force a certain current through a certain
resistance. Suppose, for a given circuit, the RESISTANCE is CONSTANT. You put an ammeter in the circuit. Every
time the CURRENT INCREASES  you know the VOLTAGE must have INCREASED. Every time the CURRENT DECREASES  you know
the VOLTAGE must have DECREASED. Remember  the resistance is constant. Exactly what is the ammeter doing? IT IS
MEASURING VOLTAGE AS WELL AS CURRENT. And if the scale of the meter reads volts instead of amperes then you have a
voltmeter. But wait a minute  it's not quite that simple. In practical circuits, the resistance is seldom
constant. However, you can add a resistance that is constant ALWAYS CONSTANTby making it a fixed part of the
meter. Such a meter is a VOLTMETER.
Figure 196.  Voltmeter connection.
Look at figure 196  notice that the meter is in parallel with the load. Now changes in LOAD resistances
have no effect on the METER resistance.
This is how the voltmeter works  there is a potential difference
between points A and B of figure 196  so much voltage. This voltage forces a SMALL current through the high
resistance, R, and then through the meter. The meter acts on this small current.
The degree of action
depends on the amount of current. And the AMOUNT OF CURRENT IS EXACTLY PROPORTIONAL TO THE VOLTAGE. Therefore, the
DEGREE OF ACTION IS PROPORTIONAL TO THE VOLTAGE. And the meter can be calibrated in volts instead of amperes.
Notice that the voltmeter must always be connected ACROSS THE LINE. If it were connected in series with any load,
the resistance of the load would cut down the current and give a reading too low.
Figure out this voltmeter problem  A meter of 50 ohms resistance will give full scale deflection with
0.0005 ampere of current through its coils. How much resistance must be added to the meter circuit in order to use
this meter as a 0500 volt voltmeter? From the 0500 volt range, you know that full scale deflection must be
produced by 500 volts. Also, you know that 0.0005 ampere in the meter coils will give full scale deflection. You
can say it either way  both mean the same  full scale deflection by 500 VOLTS or by 0.0005 AMPERE. These two
items, line voltage and meter current, tell you how much resistance is needed. It's a simple Ohm's law problem 
R = E/I = 500/0.0005 = 1,000,000 ohms.
The 1,000,000 ohms is the TOTAL resistance. You need only 1,000,000 minus 50 or 999,950 OHMS ADDITIONAL
RESISTANCE.
With 1,000,000 ohms resistance, the meter will pass 0.0005 ampere at 500 volts  full
deflection. But if the voltage is less  say 200 volts  only 0.0002 ampere passes through the meter coil because

I = E/R = 200/1,000,000 = 0.0002 amp.
And 0.0002 ampere is exactly twofifths of full
deflection current (0.000.5 ampere). Therefore, the meter pointer deflects exactly twofifths of full scale. And
on a scale of 0500 volts, 200 volts would be twofifths of the way to 500 volts. Every voltage produces its
corresponding current. And every current causes a deflection  and reading  corresponding to the voltage which
produced it.
Figure 197.  Voltmeter with series resistance.
The complete meter circuit looks like figure 197. The large resistor, R, is usually included INSIDE the
voltmeter and the. range is labeled 0500 volts.
For MULTIPLE SCALE VOLTMETERS, more than one resistor is
connected inside the meter. Look at the connections in figure 198. If the meter is connected from + to 250, both
resistors are in series with the meter coil and the range is 0250 volts.
If it is connected from + to
125, only one resistor is in series with the meter coil and the range is 0125 volts.
CAUTION
The voltmeter is more rugged than the ammeter  the voltmeter has a high resistance to' protect it.
Nevertheless, you can "cook" the windings by trying to measure a voltage higher than the meter's range.
BEFORE you connect ANY meter, make certain your instrument has a range high enough to handle the current or
voltage of the circuit. When in doubt  USE THE HIGHEST SCALE.
Figure 198.  Multiple scale voltmeter.
VOLTMETERAMMETER METHODS
There are four electrical factors in every circuit  current, voltage, resistance and power. There is a
special meter to measure each  BUT  you don't need all four meters to know all four facts.
With only the
ammeter and voltmeter readings, you can CALCULATE both the resistance and the dc power. Use Ohm's law for
resistance 
R = E/I
and use the Power Equation for power 
P = EI
Wattmeters and ohmmeters are simply instruments which do the dividing or multiplying for you. Remember
that all you need to measure in any dc circuit are voltage and current. But for ac power measurement, you must
use a wattmeter.
WATTMETERS
Power is composed of two thingsvoltage and current. A change in either one changes the power. Therefore, the
wattmeter must measure both the current and the voltage. How one meter measures both quantities is shown in figure
199.
Figure 199.  Wattmeter connections.
The two coils marked A are stationarythey are the AMMETER part. Notice, they are in series with the load.
Coil B is movable and carries the indicator needle  it is the VOLTMETER part. Notice that B is across the line
and in series with the resistor, R.
The wattmeter is like the other meters except. that there are TWO
coils. The strength of coil is determined by the line current. The strength of coil B is determined by the line
voltage. Two flux fields are set up  A and B. They exert a force on each other. Coil B is the only coil free to
move, and both forces are concentrated on it. Coil B turns, carrying the needle with it. THE AMOUNT IT TURNS IS
PROPORTIONAL TO BOTH THE FORCES ACTING ON IT. Therefore, it reads the product of both forces  POWER.
Wattmeters having multiple scales usually have their multipliers inside the meter case. It's a tricky job to add
external multipliers and then calculate the correct power. If you don't have a correct range wattmeter, the best
thing to do is measure current and voltage separately. Then multiply the two readings for the power.
THE OHMMETER
The OHMMETER is a voltmeter! But  with a very special arrangement of a resistor and a battery.
The first type ohmmeter is a voltmeter with a resistance and a battery in SERIES with the meter coil.
Figure 200 is a schematic of the series type ohmmeter.
Figure 200.  Series ohmmeter.
It works like this  the resistor, R, and the resistance of the meter, R
_{m}, are in series. The
battery ( a small dry cell) furnishes just enough voltage to cause full scale deflection of the meter. That is
full scale deflection when the test prods are touched together. When any resistance is placed between the test
prods, it ADDS RESISTANCE TO THE WHOLE CIRCUIT. Current is reduced and the meter will read LESS than full
deflection.
Figure 201.  Shunt ohmmeter.
The amount of the reading, less than full deflection, is a measure of the size of the unknown resistance
placed between the prods. Thus, this meter reads from right to left. And it must be calibrated that way.
The other type ohmmeter also has the battery and resistance in series with a voltmeter. The battery provides just
enough voltage for full scale deflection. But in this type  the SHUNT OHMMETER  the unknown resistance is
connected in PARALLEL with the meter coil.
The best way to get the workings of this meter straight is to
follow the circuit in figure 201. The current path through the resistor, R, the meter and the battery is shown by
solid arrows. The current path through the resistor; R, the unknown resistance, Rx, andthe battery is shown by
broken arrows. Two parallel paths. Apparently they have no effect on each other. But R
_{x} DOES affect the
meter circuit and here's the reason. All batteries have internal resistance  therefore, there is a voltage drop
INSIDE the battery. Any increase in the internal voltage drop of the battery (IR) is subtracted from the voltage
at the battery terminals, thus making the current through the meter less. When R
_{x} is included between
the test prods  current through the battery increases  internal IR drop increases  terminal voltage DECREASES
and the METER GETS LESS CURRENT. The indicator reads less than full deflection. The lower the R
_{x}, the
more current it draws, and the less the deflection.
This type ohmmeter reads from left to right. And
that's easily proved  if the prods are touched together R
_{x}
is practically zero. Almost all of the current is following the broken arrows. And practically no current is left
for the meter  it reads almost zero. Which it should  the prods, themselves, have practically zero resistance.
The shunt ohmmeter can be explained another way, although it's NOT quite correct. Imagine that the battery can put
out just so much current. This current can go two ways  through the meter or through R
_{x}. If R
_{x}
is high, most of the current goes throughthe meterhigh deflection. If Rx is low, most of the current goes
through R
_{x } low deflection.
This explanation is not entirely correct BECAUSE the amount of
current put out by a battery depends on the total resistance of the circuit AND the terminal voltage. This
explanation ignores terminal voltage changes.
Both series and shunt ohmmeters use primary cells and these
cells lose capacity as they are used. This is the reason for the variable resistance in the ohmmeter circuits.
Look at figures 200 and 201 again. Notice the rheostat in series with the resistor and meter coil. This rheostat
is used to compensate for any decrease in battery capacity. By increasing or decreasing the rheostat resistance,
the meter is set at zero reading before each use.
MEGGER
The MEGGER is a special instrument for measuring resistance. It's more than just a meter  it contains a small
hand generator and a sensitive voltmeter. By following the circuits in figure 202, you will find that the megger
is connected very much like a shunt ohmmeter. But with this big difference  the voltage is furnished by the hand
generator at the right, not by batteries. This little generator uses permanent magnets for a field. Whenever
permanent magnets provide the field for a generator, the machine is called a MAGNETO. The armature is turned by a
crank mounted on the side of the megger case.
Figure 202.  Megger connections.
Now "why a megger instead of one of the ohmmeters?" Because the megger has a constant voltage  no
batteries to wear down. And the megger magneto can be designed to produce, EMFs from 100 volts to 1,000 volts. It
will measure a much higher resistance than the ohmmeter. In fact, the megger's name comes from the units it
measures  MEGOHMS millions of ohms.
Navy men use meggers constantly to check circuits and cables for grounds. The two megger prods are connected
from conductor to ground. This puts the conductor's insulation between the terminals of the megger. Depending on
the type of circuit, the insulation should test between 200,000 and 5,000,000 ohms  1/5 to 5 megohms.
TOUGH ONES
When you use meters you're going to run into some tough problems. And at the same time, you're going to
run into the special meters built to solve these problems. The catch is this  the meters are pretty complicated!
In fact, they're too complicated for this book. But you want to be up on new things  and even if you can't
understand all the inner workings, you'll want to know what these special meters WILL DO. SO first a few of the
tough questions and then the meters which answer the questions.
QUESTION
ONE
Suppose you have ONE meter  it doesn't matter whether it's an ammeter, a voltmeter, or an ohmmeter. But, say
that it's a D'Arsonval VOLTMETER. And you want to use it as an AMMETER or as an OHMMETER. How do you change the
meter to fit your purpose?
THE ANSWER
You can reconnect the meter to fit your purpose. If you strip the voltmeter of its series resistance  then
it's no longer a voltmeter. It's just a plain D'Arsonval meter. Then by RECONNECTING resistances and batteries,
you can make it an AMMETER, a VOLTMETER, or an OHMMETER. And it's not a very hard thing to do  because meters are
built with STANDARD RATINGS. This one has a standard full scale deflection with 0.001 ampere through its coil.
It's called a "1 milliampere meter." And it requires one volt to force this one milliampere of current through the
coil. Now, you can find the resistance of the coil  Ohm's law 
I = E/R = 1/0.001 = 1,000 ohms.
Since it requires 1 volt to produce full scale deflection of the 1,000 ohm coil, it's a "1,000 ohms per volt"
meter. That's TWO STANDARDS for this meter  1 MILLIAMPERE and 1,000 OHMS PER VOLT. You know everything there is
to know about this meter! Full scale deflection is produced by 0.001 ampere through the coil. And 0.001 ampere
requires 1 volt because the coil's resistance is 1,000 ohms.
To make it a VOLTMETER with a 0150 volt
range  add enough resistance to limit the current to 0.001 ampere at 150 volts. Ohm's law again 
R
= 150/0.001 = 150,000 Ω
You already have 1,000 ohms in the meter's coil, so just add 149,000 ohms in
series to get the 150,00 ohms total. There's another way to find the required resistance. Remember this meter has
1,000 ohms per volt. So 150 volts will require 150 x 1,000 = 150,000 ohms. Again just add 149,000 ohms in series
with the coil.
To make the meter an AMMETER with a 010 ampere range, add a shunt heavy enough to carry
9.999 amperes. The shunt will leave 0.001 ampere of the full 10 amperes for the meter's coil. No strain on
figuring out the shunt resistance. The current is 9.999 amperes, and since the shunt is in parallel with the coil,
the shunts voltage is the same as the coil's voltage 1 volt. Ohm's law again 
R = E/I = 1/9.999 =
0.100 Ω
The shunt's resistance is 0.1 ohm. To make the meter an OHMMETER with a 0infinite ohm range,
connect a resistance and a battery in series so that full deflection is produced with no resistance across the
terminals. You would use a 1.5 volt flashlight battery. The current must be 0.001 ampere and the voltage is 1.5
volts. Ohm's law again 
R = E/I = 1.5/0.001 = 1,500 Ω
You already have 1,000 ohms in the
meter's coil  so just add 500 ohms in series with the coil to get the 1,500 ohms total. Usually this 500 ohms (or
at least a part of it) is in the form of a rheostat. By using a rheostat instead of a fixed resistance, you can
adjust the meter to a zero reading when the battery gets weak.
That's THREE meters  out of ONE. And all
made by proper resistance and battery connections! You'll see commercial jobs built like this. They're smooth
jobsall the resistances and batteries are inside the meter case. And all you have to do is turn a selector switch
to the kind of meter you want. Then read the values off the correct scale.
QUESTION TWO
What are you going to do when you have to test the voltage drop across a low current circuit? Say the voltage
drop across a radio current limiting resistor. The resistance is 100,000 ohms. The current is 1 milliampere so the
voltage is 
E = IR = 0.001 x 100,000 = 100 volts
If you used the "1,000 ohms per volt"
meter just studied, this is what would happen. You would add 99,000 ohms to the meter to give it a 0100 volt.
range. Then you'd connect it across the resistor to measure the voltage. Now you have two parallel paths. Each has
100,000 ohms resistance. One is the meter, the other is the current limiting resistor. And you only have one
milliampere of current for both. The one milliampere splits up  half to each path. And THE METER READS ONLY 50
volts, because it's only getting onehalf milliampere. In short  you have a reading that's far from right  only
onehalf of what it should be.
THE ANSWER
There are two answers. The first is  use a more sensitive meter. Use a meter with "20,000 ohms per volt."
That means much finer and more expensive winding on the coila much better meter. Then the meter, instead of
needing 1 milliampere for full scale deflection, would need only 0.05 milliampere for full scale deflection.
ALWAYS USE A METER WITH A SENSITIVITY HIGH ENOUGH FOR THE JOB.
The second answer is  use a vacuum tube
meter. These vacuum tube meters are tops! They only draw millionths of an ampere from the tested circuit. And they
have internal resistances and batteries for connecting as a voltmeter, a milliammeter, or an ohmmeter. All you
have to do is adjust a selector switch for the kind of meter you want. Then adjust another selector switch for the
range.
And right here is one of the best things about a vacuum tube meter  IT'S PRACTICALLY IMPOSSIBLE TO
BURN 'EM UP. They're designed so that you can't overload them more than 20 percent which won't hurt the meter.
Each meter has an instruction book for its particular connections. Reading this book will give you the lowdown on
the instrument.
Another good thing about the vacuum tube meter  it has no frequency error up to about 20,000
cycles. You'll find that ordinary 60 cycle meters start to cut up and give you foul readings on anything over 80
or 85 cycles.
QUESTION THREE
How can you use a dc D'Arsonval meter on a.c.?
This sounds like a good ideabecause the D'Arsonval
movement is sensitive and it reacts much faster than the heateffect ac meters.
THE ANSWER
Rectify the a.c. so it can be fed as d.c. into the meter.
You already know about one kind of rectifier
 the commutator. But a different kind of rectifier is used for meters. It's the COPPER OXIDE RECTIFIER. Here is
the way it works. Two disks are bolted together  one is copper, coated with copper oxide, and the other is lead.
The unit looks like two washers about 11/2 inches in diameter, bolted together. This unit is inserted in the ac
line to the meter  it becomes part of the circuit. When a.c. flows, ONLY THE CURRENT FROM COPPER TO COPPER OXIDE
IS PASSED. The current in the opposite direction, from oxide to copper, is stopped  eliminated. Thus the
rectifier passes all the current in one direction, but it stops all the current in the opposite direction. It
works like the check valve in a water intake pipe.
The meter gets current in only one direction. So its
torque is in only one direction. However, the d.c. fed to the meter is PULSATING  the meter must have a SPECIAL
SCALE. That means that you can't just use ANY dc meter with a rectifier. But you'll find that many of your ac
meters are actually dc jobs with copper oxide rectifiers and special scales.
The SELENIUM OXIDE RECTIFIER
is another type of rectifier. You'll find that it works the same way as the copper oxide type. Construction and
rectifying effects are the same for both rectifiers.
QUESTION FOUR
How can you get an actual picture of the ac wave form? You'll need that picture when you're paralleling
alternators, when you're testing and tuning radio circuits, and when you're testing a.c. circuits for power.
THE ANSWER
An oscilloscope is the answer. This instrument uses a vacuum tube and a fluorescent screen to reproduce the
wave form of a.c. By proper connections, the oscilloscope screen will give you the curves of voltage and current
for any circuit. The curves tell you the maximum voltage, or any instantaneous value. And by connecting TWO
circuits you can get the phasing between TWO voltages or between a voltage and its current.
You'll learn a
lot more about these special meters as you get into the books for your own rating. But now, at least, you know
something about what they can do. Don't try to redesign 'em  keep out of their innards. These special jobs cost
plenty, and you'll really be SNAFU if you foul one up!
READING METERS
Meters are tops in sensitivity and accuracy  but all the accuracy of a good meter can be wasted by reading it
wrong. There is only one way to read a meter right. And that's by facing the scale squarely. If your eyes are off
to one side, you see the needle at an angle to the scale. The needle seems to be where it isn't!
Figure
203 shows incorrect meter reading.
Imagine your eyes at an angle above these meters. First, far to the right, then only a little to the right,
and finally to the left of the needle. In each position an error is introduced  as much as 10 volts. There is no
sense in using a good meter if CARELESS READING gives an INACCURATE MEASUREMENT.
Figure 203.  Incorrect meter reading.
Here is another way to foul up a good meter  stand it on its head! Every meter is built to be used in ONE
position  either upright, flat, or mounted in a switchboard. The meter's indicator needle is balanced for its
correct position. If you use it in an incorrect position, the needle's weight will pull it off the correct
reading. Here's a good tip  an UNCONNECTED METER will read ZERO when it's in the correct POSITION for reading.
PROFICIENCY SAVER
FINALLY, here is a repeat  but it's worth it both to YOU and to the NAVY. CONNECT YOUR METERS PROPERLY! USE
METERS OF THE CORRECT RANGE! Know how to connect properly ALL the meters in a circuit. Keep your connections in
mind  it may save a 4.0 for you!
Chapter 18 Quiz
(click
here)