Component Reliability for Electronic SystemsAnswers to RF Cafe Quiz #37
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All RF Cafe quizzes would make perfect fodder for employment interviews for technicians or engineers - particularly those who are fresh out of school or are relatively new to the work world. Come to think of it, they would make equally excellent study material for the same persons who are going to be interviewed for a job.
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Note: Many answers contain passages quoted in whole or in part from the text.
This quiz is based on the information presented in Component Reliability for Electronic Systems, authored by Titu-Marius I. Bajenescu & Marius I. Bazu. Published by Artech House. Note: Some of these books are available as prizes in the monthly RF Cafe Giveaway.
1. What are the two main components of product quality?
c) Conformity and reliability
Quality in fact contains two notions: conformity, which is referring to the conformance to requirements at the moment of delivery to the client, and reliability, focused on how the conformance to requirements was maintained during the product usage. (see page 2)
2. What are the two main ways to quantify the reliability of a system?
d) Laboratory tests, field operational data
Laboratory test are designed to simulate actual field conditions to identify potential problems areas, while field data under actual operational conditions provide feedback for a continuous improvement process. (see page 22)
3. TQM (Total Quality Management) requires which behaviors?
d) All the above
"TQM is an applications of the management for the involved methods and human resources in the purpose to control all processes and to achieve a continuous improvement of the quality," U.S. DoD. (see page 36)
4. A properly designed Accelerated Lift Test (ACL) must do what?
a) Pass through all states, in the same order as normal, but in shorter time
Along with the actual physical testing is a requirement to develop applicable statistical models to correlate accelerated testing conditions (see page 115)
5. What are some key components of meaningful failure analysis?
b) Knowledge of the failure mechanism and establishment of the consequences
The constitutive elements of a failure analysis are:
- Knowledge of the failure mechanisms
- Discovery of the causes producing the effects
- Establishment of the consequences
- Statistical evaluation of the decisions
- Development of improved methods of analysis (see page 194)
6. What type of failure has the highest occurrence in semiconductors?
b) Metallization defects
According to Figure 5.7, the order of defect occurrence is metallization (43%), connections (29%), other (19%), oxide (10%), die (5%), crystallographic (5%). Note that percentages total more than 100% due to multiple occurrences in some failures. (see page 210)
7. Which of the following are likely causes for passive component failure?
d) All the above
Add to that list inadequate utilization and that about completes the list. (see page 260)
8. What is radiation hardness?
a) Immunity to failure due to radiation, wave or particle
Space environments are more hostile to microelectronics because Earth's atmosphere is not available to absorb some of the highest energy particles and wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation. That necessitates special packaging for protection. (see 352)
9. What is the well-known Arrhenius model determine the relationship for?
c) Relationship between failure rate and device junction temperature
Tj = PD (RjC + RCS + RSE) + Ta,
where Tj is the junction temperature, PD is the dissipated power, RjC is the thermal resistance junction-to-case, RCS is the thermal resistance case-to-heatsink, RSE is the thermal resistance from heat-sink-to-environment, and Ta is the ambient temperature. (see page 366)
10. What is a failure mode unique to MEMS devices compared to traditional ICs?
c) Moving parts can fail
Micro ElectroMechanical Systems are a combination of electrical and mechanical components (motors, gears, levers, pumps, etc.) on a single substrate, and therefore can experience mechanical failures beyond simple die fracturing. (see page 589)