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Note: Many answers contain passages quoted from the text.
Return to RF Cafe Quiz #34
quiz is based on the information presented in Multi-Gigabit Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Wireless Communications,
by Jonathan Wells. Artech House is the
Note: Some of these books are available as prizes in the monthly
RF Cafe Giveaway.
1. Which entity is the primary regulatory agency in the world with responsibility for
shared global use of the radio spectrum?
d) ITU (International Telecommunication
The ITU is the primary regulatory agency in the world with the responsibility for coordinating
the shared global use of the radio spectrum. (see page 5)
2. What is a
primary obstacle to FSO (Free Space Optics) terrestrial usage?
a) Very high attenuation.
Communications at optical frequencies are especially sensitive to atmospheric and
conditions, particularly fog, which can drastically limit distance. (see page 13)
3. Which condition causes the least amount of attenuation on electromagnetic signals?
b) Dry air.
See the chart of atmospheric attenuation versus frequency on page 25.
4. What is the equation for determining attenuation factor (specific attenuation) due to snow and ice?
(R=snowfall rate in mm/hr, λ=wavelength in mm)
d) Attenuation Factor = [(0.00349*R1.6)/λ4] + [(0.00224*R)/λ]
The effects of
snow and ice on atmospheric attenuation at high frequencies have not been
as well studied as those of
rain and fog. (see page 37)
See author's reference document for attenuation factor
5. What is the
equation for determining attenuation due to foliage?
(f=frequency in MHz, R=depth of foliage in m)
d) Loss = 0.2f0.3R0.6
Losses due to foliage can be significant at high frequencies.
(see page 38)
(BTW, a, b, and c are all equivalent equations)
is a primary feature of a plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) system?
a) Running in a state where
different parts of the network are nearly,
but not quite perfectly, synchronized. (see page 48)
What does the image to the right depict?
b) 256 QAM with phase noise
Phase noise manifests itself
jitter in an IQ constellation. An
ideal pattern is also shown for
reference. (see page
8. Which frequencies in the 60 GHz band are allocated by the FCC for unlicensed
a) 57 to 64 GHz
In 2001, the FCC allocated 7 GHz of spectrum from 57 GHz to 64 GHz for
(see page 104)
9. What is a link budget?
An accounting of all gains and losses in a communications system
A link budget is a method of accounting
for all the gains and losses in a communications system,
from the power out of the transmitter, through
the free space medium, to the received signal at
the receiver. (see page 178)
10. Which city would likely have higher 23 GHz system availability due to weather?
Refer to the atmospheric attenuation chart in Figure 2.3 (see page 199, chart on page 25)