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Note: Many answers contain passages quoted in whole or in part from the text.
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Cafe Quiz #28
quiz is based on the information presented in Human-Centered Information Fusion, by David L. Hall and
John M. Jordan. Published by Artech House.
Note: Some of these books are
available as prizes in the monthly RF Cafe
1. What is human-centered information fusion?
a) The inclusion of human sensory
data in the processing of situational awareness
"...traditional data fusions
and introduces the changing role of information fusion systems and the emergence of the human
user/analyst/observer." See page 1.
2. How many model levels are there in the
JDL (Joint Director of Laboratories) model?
0 = Source refinement, 1 = Object refinement, 2 =
Situation refinement, 3 = Threat refinement, 4 = Process refinement, 5 = Cognitive refinement. See page 11.
What is a "soft sensor?"
b) A processor that handles many inputs at once for decision making
Human-centered information fusion incorporates human inputs (human-in-the-loop) as sensory resources in system
decision making. See page 24.
4. What is the "human landscape?"
a) Environmental (physical and emotional) entities generated by human action and interaction
purposes, the human landscape might be understood as people, in the aggregate at various scales, as they relate to
the natural world, the built environment, and each other." See page 37.
is the term given by the authors to the realm of human sensory input
The "H" stands for
"human." This is different from the H-Space term in topology named in honor of
Heinz Hopf. See page 59
6. Which of these objects serve as sensors for the "Global Neighborhood Watch?"
d) All the above
"The idea extends the concept of citizens in local neighborhood watch groups seeking
to reduce street crime to an international scale for reduction of terrorism." See page 85.
7. What is data visualization?
c) Presenting data in non-traditional manner to
accentuate important results
Rather than relying on traditional chart types for presenting information,
creative methods are employed to highlight information of high importance, and/or minimize irrelevant minor
affects. See pages 127 - 146 for examples.
8. What is sonification?
Using properties of sound as a sensor input
"...way in which a set of data processing operations may be
matched with a set of sonic parameters in order to gain insights into the data's dynamics." See page 149.
9. What does IPB stand for?
a) Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield
"Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield is a systematic, time-tested methodology of analysis for the
study and understanding of the effects of battlefield conditions on enemy and friendly forces within a unit's
operation and interest area." See page 172.
10. Where was the term
"mega-collaboration" first applied?
b) To describe comprehensive Internet activity
mega-collaboration appears to have been coined by Neilson to describe activity on the Web in which independent
actions from millions of people acting on their own interest collectively create a productive environment." See