All RF Cafe quizzes would make perfect fodder for employment interviews for technicians or engineers - particularly those who are fresh out
of school or are relatively new to the work world. Come to think of it, they would make equally excellent study material for the same persons
who are going to be interviewed for a job.
Click here for the complete list of RF Cafe
Note: Many answers contain passages quoted in whole or in part from the text.
Return to RF
Cafe Quiz #26
quiz is based on the information presented in Substrate Noise Coupling in Analog/RF Circuits, by Stephane
Bronkers, Geert Van der Plas, Gerd Vandersteen, and Yves Rolain. Published by Artech House.
Some of these books are available as prizes in the monthly
RF Cafe Giveaway.
1. Which is NOT a class of substrate noise analysis?
Figure 1.1, on page 3, illustrates generation, propagation, and
impact substrate noise
2. What is the most popular and
straightforward method for shielding analog integrated circuits
against substrate noise?
Per page 39, "Guard rings are passive isolation structures, which prevent substrate noise currents
from reaching the analog circuitry."
3. Aggressor and victim refer to what
b) The source of and recipient of substrate noise, respectively
An aggressor is the area
of the substrate generating the potential noise source, and the victim is the area to which the noise is coupled.
See Figure 3.3 on page 41.
4. What is the best way to separate substrate coupling
noise from other regional noise coupling sources when developing mixed (digital/analog) signal devices?
a) Dice between the regions to physically separate the digital/analog regions, then wire bond between
During the development/characterization process, a dicing line can be designed into the die that allows
physically separating the two (or more) partitions, then wire bonding between regions after mounting to a carrier.
Wire bond lengths can usually be kept short enough to not degrade function, but still permit determination of
substrate noise sources. See page 145.
5. At high frequencies, which off-chip
noise coupling mechanism typically dominates?
d) Magnetic coupling between die bond wires
coupling between the die bond wires is typically many decibels greater than PCB trace coupling. See page 142.
6. What is the primary source of FM modulated noise spurs?
c) Perturbations on the
"To reduce the power of the FM modulated spurs, the impedance of the on-chip ground
interconnect has to be small compared to the impedance of the PCB ground network." See page 174.
7. In a VCO circuit, what is a likely mechanism for AM spur generation and intermediate
a) Capacitive coupling from on-chip inductors to the substrate
permits the AM coupling by altering the reference potential of the substrate. See page 175.
8. How are digital and analog grounds kept separate on the die?
d) Separate digital /
analog ground metal on the die, with separate off-chip digital / analog
As with PCB design, maintaining isolated digital / analog grounds( and supplies when practical) is the best
method for avoiding coupling noise. Inserting a small value resistor (0.5 ohms) between the PCB ground and the IC
mounting pad can help reduce ground reference bounce. See page 186.
9. For what
purpose is parasitic extraction used?
c) Obtaining parasitic RLC values for use in simulation
order to allow more accurate simulation of devices, it is necessary to construct a robust equivalent circuit model
that includes intentional and unintentional R,L, and C values. The model can then be used with high confidence in
other designs. See page 200.
10. What determines to a large extent the efficiency
of a P+ guard ring?
a) Impedance of the ground interconnect
Substrate currents are
picked up by the P+ region of the guard ring and are drained toward the PCB ground. See page 65.