Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Electronic Packaging
|30 kHz - 300 MHz
300 MHz - 1 GHz
1 GHz - 2 GHz
2 GHz - 4 GHz
4 GHz - 8 GHz
8 GHz - 12 GHz
12 GHz - 18 GHz
18 GHz - 27 GHz
27 GHz - 40 GHz
40 GHz - 75 GHz
75 GHz - 110 GHz
2. What is the main additional issue concerning high versus low frequency design?
d) All the above
At higher frequencies a set of additional issues arise compared to lower frequencies. Among
them are distributed effects, undesired resonances in packaging elements or modules, circuit traces
that must be treated as transmission lines, dispersion effects, coupling and cross-talk between
circuits, very high heat density in circuits, parasitic effects and proper RF grounding, and hermiticity
or otherwise protection of circuits.
(see page 3)
3. What is the difference between loss tangent and dissipation factor?
b) Dissipation factor does not account for permittivity being complex at high frequencies
Dissipation factor ignores the fact that permittivity is complex at high frequencies due to
atonic resonances within the dielectric material.
(see page 18)
4. What is a first-level interconnect in reference to RFIC design?
a) Electrical connection between the semiconductor device and the package
First-level interconnects (FLI) are the electrical connections between semiconductor devices
such as integrated circuits or transistors and the first level of packaging.
(see page 31)
5. Match the following terms with their proper definitions.
|Atomic polarization||Occurs when the center of an electron cloud of an atom is displaced relative to the center of the nucleus in the presence of an electric field.|
|Ionic polarization||Occurs when molecules with ionic bonds have a displacement of the positive ions relative to negative ions in the presence of an electric field.|
|Orientation polarization||Occurs when molecules that have a permanent dipole moment, but are naturally randomly oriented, orient themselves in the presence of an electric field.|
6. What makes metals good electrical conductors?
b) Free electrons
Metallic materials have free electrons, which giver rise to an electric current in the presence
of an electric field.
(see page 56)
7. What are properties of ceramics that make them good as microwave circuitry substrates?
g) All the above
Ceramics are useful in RF products for several reasons: inherently stable due to high Young's
modulus, easy to wire bond to, tight line resolution for impedance control, narrow line widths
for high impedance, easy brazing facilitated hermiticity, high thermal conductivity, high circuit
density with blind and buried vias, high reliability in extreme temperature environments.
(see page 67)
8. What type of thick film pastes are available for use on ceramic substrates?
g) All the above
The paste used to pattern thick-film ceramics can be metal, resistor material, or dielectrics
(see page 79)
What are the names of the two ends of the depicted
type of wire bond?
d) Ball and stitch
(see page 109)
10. What is one of the main advantages of flip chip mounting for high frequency ICs?
c) Lower wire bond inductance
Flip chip interconnects are particularly useful at microwave an millimeterwave frequencies
because of the lower inductance and tight manufacturing tolerances.
(see page 127)