Court First to Award Damages From
Wireless Phone Use
The Italian Supreme Court has affirmed a worker's compensation claim filed by a man who developed a tumor after using wireless phones daily for 12 years. This is the first time a court has ruled in favor of such a link. The decision is an important legal precedent, but it also represents a defeat for experts at the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Protection (ICNIRP) and at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm whose "don't worry, be happy" outlook was rejected by the court. Read more at Microwave News.
EMP Missile Shows Its Stuff
A cruise missile launched from a B-52 bomber streaked over a Utah desert in October and at pre-set coordinates, a microwave emitter blasted a target building with a high-power electromagnetic pulse (EMP) to turn electronic systems dumb, which it apparently did quite well….and accurately thanks to the system’s ability to precisely aim the beam. It was part of a three-year, $40 Air Force million program lead by Boeing and Raytheon to develop the High-powered Microwave Advanced Missile Project (CHAMP). The program began after Israel's air strike on Syrian nuclear facilities in 2007, in which Israel apparently used EMP to shut down Syrian air defenses.
The March of Small Cells
The market for small cells (i.e., femto and pico) is expected to grow by over 100% per year for the 5 years, according to a report from Informa Telecoms & Media. The massive growth will be driven to some degree by the consumer market but mostly by carriers that need to fill coverage gaps in order to maintain the high rates expected by consumers of LTE. Other analyst groups have reported similar growth. The miniature base stations will also be a prime consumer of SAW and BAW filters in order to sort out the required bands and keep nearby macro cell from overloading them,
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SAW Filters and Duplexers: Tiny…and Essential
Compared to the densely-packed spectral allocations of today, the early days of wireless telephony look positively empty, a wilderness where interference between services was far less a problem. Now, services must not only reject signals from other services but from their own as well, since guard bands are all but vanishing. While bandpass filters can remedy this problem in macro cell base stations where size is generally not an issuer, only Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) and soon Bulk Acoustic Wave (BAW) filters (and duplexers) are small enough to be used within the confines of a smartphone.
Smartphones, tablets, and other wireless-enabled devices must often accommodate second through fourth-generation voice and data standards in more than a dozen bands, as well as WiFi, Bluetooth, and GPS receivers, they can require more than a dozen SAW filters and duplexers. Safe to say, without them current and future smartphones would simply not function.
Acoustic filters owe their unique capabilities to the principles of piezoelectricity and propagation of sound (acoustic) waves across materials such as quartz, which make them unique among filter types. While the use of sound waves to create filters seems odd at first, an explanation of how these properties can be harnessed for use in wireless phones becomes clear.
To provide just such a description, we have prepared a technical guide called “Understanding SAW Filters and Duplexers”, and it’s available as a free download from our Web site, http://www.anatechelectronics.com/ and Web store, http://www.amcrf.com. As a supplier of SAW devices for many years, we can help you specify the best combination of SAW filters and duplexers for your application. So please call us at (973) 772-4242 or send an e-mail to email@example.com to talk your needs over with one of our technical specialists.
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Ceramic Filters: Still
In many wireless products, especially smartphones and other small wireless-enabled devices, SAW filters have taken the place of ceramic filters thanks to their uniquely small size and high performance. However, for frequencies above about 1500 MHz, their selectivity falls off, making them a poor choice for all but the least demanding applications. While not as small as SAW filters, ceramic filters provide an excellent alternative, especially when size constraints are not a decisive factor. And unlike SAW filters, ceramic filters lend themselves well to custom requirements and small quantities, do not suffer from severe drift over temperature, and are very cost-effective. As a result, they are an excellent choice for use in a wide range of products operating at frequencies from 400 MHz to more than 6 GHz.
Ceramic filters have low insertion loss, can handle RF input power up to about 5 W and are suitable for surface mounting. Their 3-dB bandwidth ranges from 2% to 20%, they can operate over a temperature range of -45o to +85o C, and they meet stringent requirements for shock and vibration. There are two types of ceramic filters, those made of discrete components and “monoblock” types whose structure is a single piece of ceramic. Monoblock ceramic filters are best suited to high-volume applications in which their higher manufacturing cost can be amortized over a larger number of devices. Other than reduced size, the monoblock ceramic filter's performance is largely the same as its discrete counterpart.
Anatech Electronics specializes in both types of ceramic filters, and we offer dozens of standard models available from our Web store, AMCrf.com, and we can quickly design and manufacture custom models to meet customer specifications. To learn more about ceramic filters, please download our guide to ceramic filters by clicking here. To discuss the unique needs of your application, please call us at (973) 772-4242 or send an e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org to talk your needs over with one of our technical specialists.
To discuss the unique needs of your application, please call us at (973) 772-4242 or send an e-mail to email@example.com to talk your needs over with one of our technical specialists.
To visit our technical reference section,