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Homepage Archive - August 2021 (page 3)

See Page 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 of the August 2021 homepage archives.

Friday the 20th

Electronics Themed Comics

Electronics Themed Comics, October 1945 Radio-Craft - RF CafeRadio-Craft magazine's "Radio Term Illustrated" feature of electronics-themed comics was very popular. Famous artist Frank Beaven, who created illustrations for numerous publications at the time, took ideas submitted by readers and turned them into clever word (or phrase) pictures. You will need to consider some of them from the viewpoint of someone in the 1945 era in which they were made. I don't know if women Navy personnel are referred to as WAVES (Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service ) anymore - probably not. Arcing from motor armature brushes was a common cause of radio interference in the days of AM broadcasting, hence "brush discharge." Enjoy!

Top 5 Clever Solutions to Common Problems of RF PCB Designs

Top 5 Clever Solutions to Common Problems of RF and Microwave PCB Designs - RF CafeThe following article entitled "Top 5 Clever Solutions to Common Problems of RF and Microwave PCB Designs" was prepared for and submitted to RF Cafe by its author, Ken Ghadia, of TechnoTronix Electronics Manufacturing Services. He wrote asking whether he could provide an article on an aspect of PCB design relevant to RF Cafe visitors, so I suggested addressing the issue of placing digital and analog / RF signals on a common substrate. TechnoTronix has a state of the art facility here in the United States that enables clients to successfully overcome production and PCB fab challenges to produce the innovative, cutting-edge electronics products and providing PCB prototype services, PCB, PCB assembly service, PCB manufacturing service, PCB fabrication service & more in U.S. and around the world...

Semiconductor Cools Computer Chips

Semiconductor Cools Computer Chips - RF Cafe"A novel semiconducting material with high thermal conductivity can be integrated into high-power computer chips to cool them down and so improve their performance. The material, boron arsenide, is better at removing heat than the best thermal-management devices available today, according to the US-based researchers who developed it. gallium nitride-boron arsenide heterostructure interface An electron microscopy image of a gallium nitride-boron arsenide heterostructure interface at atomic resolution. The size of computer chips has been shrinking over the years and has now reached the nanoscale, meaning that billions of transistors can be squeezed onto a single computer chip. This increased density of chips has enabled faster, more powerful computers..."

Carl & Jerry: Elementary Induction

Carl & Jerry: Elementary Induction, June 1963 Popular Electronics - RF CafeWhile a bit far-fetched, this Carl & Jerry saga from the June 1963 issue of Popular Electronics magazine has the two amateur radio hobbyists cum detectives applying their knowledge of standing waves and an invention called SNARE, "Signal Net for Actuating Radio-sensitive Explosives," by Irwin Ehlmann, to thwart an assassination attempt on a visiting foreign dignitary. The name of the patent is actually "Method and apparatus for detonating radio frequency sensitive blasting caps," but the principal is the same. The choice by author John T. Frye of a halo antenna on their mobile shortwave rig was probably no coincidence given the guardian angel role it played in the adventure...

Exodus 2.0-8.0 GHz, 70 W, SSPA Replaces Aging TWTs

Exodus Advanced Communications AMP1146A, 2.0-8.0 GHz, 70 W, Solid-State Module Replaces Aging TWT's - RF CafeExodus Advanced Communications introduces our compact 2.0-8.0 GHz Module, model number AMP1146A. This ideal TWT replacement produces 70-watts minimum, 80-90 W nominal power. The minimum power gain is 48 dB with <−20 dBc harmonics. Included are current & temperature sensing and built-in protection circuits for optimum reliability & ruggedness for all applications. The nominal weight is 3 lbs., and dimensions of 4.3" W x 7.8" L x 1.0" H. Class AB linear GaN design. Suitable for all single channel modulation standards. Built-in protection circuits...

Get Your Custom-Designed RF Cafe Gear!

Custom-Designed RF-Themed Cups, T-Shirts, Mouse Pads, Clocks (Cafe Press) - RF CafeThis assortment of custom-designed themes by RF Cafe includes T-Shirts, Mouse Pads, Clocks, Tote Bags, Coffee Mugs and Steins, Purses, Sweatshirts, and Baseball Caps. Choose from amazingly clever "We Are the World's Matchmakers" Smith chart design or the "Engineer's Troubleshooting Flow Chart." My "Matchmaker's" design has been ripped off by other people and used on their products, so please be sure to purchase only official RF Cafe gear. My markup is only a paltry 50¢ per item - Cafe Press gets the rest of your purchase price. These would make excellent gifts for husbands, wives, kids, significant others, and for handing out at company events or as rewards for excellent service. It's a great way to help support RF Cafe. Thanks...

Many Thanks to Centric RF for Their Continued Support!

Centric RF microwave components - RF CafeCentric RF is a company offering from stock various RF and Microwave coaxial components, including attenuators, adapters, cable assemblies, terminations, power dividers, and more. We believe in offering high performance parts from stock at a reasonable cost. Frequency ranges of 0-110 GHz at power levels from 0.5-500 watts are available off the shelf. Order today, ship today! Centric RF is currently looking for vendors to partner with them. Please visit Centric RF today.

Thursday the 19th

Radio-Electronics Monthly Review

Radio-Electronics Monthly Review, October 1945 Radio-Craft - RF CafeOn December 8, 1941, the day after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the FCC issued a "Notice to All Amateur Licensees" that began thusly: "All amateur licensees are hereby notified that the Commission has ordered the immediate suspension of all amateur radio operation in the continental United States, its territories, and possessions." The October 1945 issue of Radio-Craft magazine announced the long-awaited planned resumption of transmitting operations. On November 15, 1945, amateurs were finally allowed back on the air, but only on the 10 and 2 meter bands. Another end to an FCC wartime policy announced was the requirement to reduce output power by 1 dB (~20%) below normal maximum power, with the motivation having been to extend the lifetime of tubes. Proving that engineers and major corporations can have a sense of humor, get a load of the "sniffer" radar dish shown here...

Caltech's $100M Solar Power from Space

Caltech's $100M Solar Power from Space - RF Cafe"In 1941 Isaac Asimov, the science fiction writer, published a short story called 'Reason.' It was a cautionary tale about robotics and artificial intelligence, but it's also remembered now for its fanciful setting: A space station that gathered solar energy to send to the planets via microwave. Ever since, space-based solar power has been an out-there idea - something with potential to change the world, if we can ever master the technology, and muster the funds, to do it. Donald Bren has done his share of reading about solar power, and since he is one of America's wealthiest real estate developers, he's in a position to help muster the funds. The California Institute of Technology has just announced that, since 2013, Bren and his wife Brigitte have given the school more than US $100 million to help make photovoltaic power from orbit a reality..."

Senior Transmitter Engineer Job Opening at RGNext

Senior Transmitter Engineer Job Opening at RGNext - RF CafeReady to launch your career? RGNext operates, maintains, and sustains mission-critical systems to provide safe and effective launch, testing, and tracking of Department of Defense, civil, commercial and international space lift vehicles. We currently have an immediate opening for a Senior Transmitter Engineer. Our employees serve on the forefront of global defense and space operations. We offer our team of experienced, professional employees an environment of challenging, stimulating and personally and professionally rewarding career opportunities. You will provide operations & maintenance support for L-band and S-band radar hardware systems, maintain, troubleshoot and repair various pieces of commercial and custom hardware...

Choosing Your TV Antenna

Choosing Your TV Antenna, December 1958 Popular Electronics - RFCafeWho cares about television antennas these days, you're probably asking? Many people might care soon. The December 2012 edition of the IEEE's Spectrum magazine had an article titled, "TV's Future: The Broadcast Empire Strikes Back." According to author Lynn Claudy, the Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) is working on a standard called Mobile DTV (MDTV) in the United States. MDVT enables broadcast stations to deliver programming to some cellphones, laptops, tablets and to moving television screens in cars, trains, and buses. Furthermore, a scheme to enable on-demand programming, user feedback (voting, polls, quizzes, games), and other advanced features is under investigation in research labs and field trials. Local businesses welcome a rebirth of regional over-the-air-broadcasts...

ConductRF VITA67 RF Solutions for VPX from DigiKey

ConductRF VITA67 RF Solutions for VPX from DigiKey - RF CafeConductRF is now making many standard VITA67 RF Cable assembly options available immediately through DigiKey. We are supporting SMPM, SMPS and NanoRF insertable coax connector configurations with standard validated performance up to 18 GHz. Each assembly is built utilizing our highly stable coax cable. Solutions include options for both 0.086" and 0.047" Coax Cable. A robust and powerful solution for Multi-Port RF interconnect. An new industry standard for backplane Blind Mate solutions. Also support mixed signal requirements. SMPM, SMPS & NanoRF contacts supports from DC to 18 GHz. Phase matching available. 100% Test Validated...

New for 2021! RF & Electronics Symbols for Office™

RF & Electronics Schematic & Block Diagram Symbols for Office™ r2 - RF CafeIt was a lot of work, but I finally finished a version of the "RF & Electronics Schematic & Block Diagram Symbols" that works well with Microsoft Office™ programs Word™, Excel™, and Power Point™. This is an equivalent of the extensive set of amplifier, mixer, filter, switch, connector, waveguide, digital, analog, antenna, and other commonly used symbols for system block diagrams and schematics created for Visio™. Each of the 1,000 or so symbols was exported individually from Visio in the EMF file format, then imported into Word on a Drawing Canvas. The EMF format allows an image to be scaled up or down without becoming pixelated, so all the shapes can be resized in a document and still look good. The imported symbols can also be UnGrouped into their original constituent parts for editing. Check them out!

Thanks to NextPCB for Continued Support!

NextPCB - RF CafeNextPCB is one of the most experienced PCB manufacturers in China, has specialized in the PCB and assembly industry for over 15 years. NextPCB provides the most innovative printed circuit boards and assembly technologies in the highest quality standards, turnaround time as fast as 24 hours, the lowest manufacturer direct prices, and the most dedicated customer service in the industry. Turnkey service without a broker including components sourcing, PCB prototyping, manufacturing, assembly, quality testing, and final shipment. Certified by IATF16949, ISO9001, ISO14001, UL, CQC, RoHS and REACH.

Wednesday the 18th

The Laser - A Light Amplifier

The Laser - A Light Amplifier, September 1960 Electronics World - RF CafePrior to the invention of gas (CO2, HeNe) and chemical (iodine, hydrogen fluoride) lasers in the early to middle 1960s, lasers (light amplification by stimulate emission of radiation) were made using rare earth gems (ruby). Evolution occurred rapidly in power output, wavelength (color), stability, purity, and lasing source type.The concept of lasers were introduced in science fiction, but believe it or not the first recorded instance of the term "LASER" was in a paper written in 1959 by Gordon Gould. Development flowed from the preexisting maser (microwave amplification by stimulate emission of radiation) knowledge. This 1960 news item in Electronics World magazine reported on Dr. Theodore H. Maiman's work at Hughes Research Laboratories. Nowadays lasers are ubiquitous in our lives (DVD players, automotive LIDAR, cat toys) and we have lasers integrated into semiconductor substrates for intra-chip signal communications...

Anti-Satellite Weapons Push Military to Rethink Spaceborne Missile Sentinels

Anti-Satellite Weapons Push Military to Rethink Spaceborne Missile Sentinels - RF Cafe"For decades, the United States has used the same approach to detecting ballistic missiles from space: Put a handful of satellites with infrared sensors high in orbit and spread them out to achieve 24/7 coverage of the Earth's surface. And it's largely worked. The Space Force tracks thousands of missiles a year, and in one high-profile case in 2020, America's premier missile detection satellite system was credited with giving a last-minute warning to war fighters in Iraq who were able to seek shelter from incoming missiles launched from Iran. But that constellation structure is no longer sustainable. The proliferation of anti-satellite weapons is challenging the approach. It no longer makes sense, U.S. military leaders have said, to put all of their billion-dollar eggs in one basket..."

Anatech Electronics August 2021 Newsletter

Anatech Electronics August 2021 Newsletter - RF CafeSam Benzacar of Anatech Electronics, an RF and microwave filter company, has published his August 2021 Newsletter that features his short op−ed entitled "The Millimeter-Wave Debacle Revisited," where he notes, "there are good reasons why few have dared to tread there, not the least of which are extremely challenging propagation characteristics, very short range, and the need to rely on complex technologies to make communications possible. I found it interesting that, except for a few bold journalists, hardly anyone has asked whether, with all these challenges, it will be economically feasible, at least initially, to use these frequencies." Sam also presents some relevant industry news items as well...

432-Mc. Solar Patrol

432-Mc. Solar Patrol, August 1967 QST - RF CafeNASA (and its predecessor NACA), and private and public operators have been monitoring solar events in the optical realm for many decades while attempting to correlate terrestrial phenomena with it. Auroral light displays in the extreme polar regions have long been known to be caused by solar flare and coronal mass ejections (CME). With the advent of radio, the electrical nature of the upper atmosphere became evident when static (AM) and long range propagation affected long range communications. Extreme CME activity eventually was associated with behavior of the electrical power grid; indeed, massive blackouts and brownouts are to blame for many. Last but not least came concern for sun-sourced electrons regarding satellites. More than one 'bird' has been smoked by the sun's ejecta. In 1967 when this article appeared in QST magazine, scientists were still in the early stages of measuring and understanding the effects of solar activity on the sun. The Geophysical Year...

RF Cascade Workbook 2018

RF Cascade Workbook 2018 Is Available Now! - RF CafeRF Cascade Workbook 2018 is the next phase in the evolution of RF Cafe's long-running series, RF Cascade Workbook. Chances are you have never used a spreadsheet quite like this (click here for screen capture). It is a full-featured RF system cascade parameter and frequency planner that includes filters and mixers for a mere $45. Built in MS Excel, using RF Cascade Workbook 2018 is a cinch and the format is entirely customizable. It is significantly easier and faster than using a multi-thousand dollar simulator when a high level system analysis is all that is needed. An intro video takes you through the main features...

Thanks to Copper Mountain Technologies for Continued Support

Copper Mountain TechnologiesCopper Mountain Technologies develops innovative and robust RF test and measurement solutions for engineers all over the world. Copper Mountain's extensive line of unique form factor Vector Network Analyzers include an RF measurement module and a software application which runs on any Windows PC, laptop or tablet, connecting to the measurement hardware via USB interface. The result is a lower cost, faster, more effective test process that fits into the modern workspace in lab, production, field and secure testing environments.

Tuesday the 17th

Kluge Electronics "California Kilowatt" Amateur Radio Station

Kluge Electronics "California Kilowatt" Amateur Radio Station, March 1946, Radio-Craft - RF CafeNo matter how proud I was of my family name, I do believe I would refrain from using "Kluge" as a company moniker. Maybe the word did no connate the same meaning in 1946 when this advertisement for the Kluge Electronics "California Kilowatt" Amateur Radio Station appeared in Radio-Craft magazine. An extensive WWW search turned up no examples of any surviving Kluge "California Kilowatt" Amateur Radio Stations. One QRZ website discussion supposed that none were ever manufactured. Per Wikipedia: "A kludge or kluge (klooj) is a workaround or quick-and-dirty solution that is clumsy, inelegant, inefficient, difficult to extend and hard to maintain." It has an interesting etymology. I found references to the term "California Kilowatt" meaning a transmitter putting out more than the legal power limit. California Kilowatt is also nowadays the name of a Canadian rock band...

FCC Publishes 1st-Ever 4G LTE Coverage Map

FCC Publishes 1st-Ever 4G LTE Coverage Map - RF Cafe"The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has published its first map that shows 4G LTE mobile broadband coverage across the U.S. The map shows coverage as of May 15, 2021. Users can click boxes to show the coverage of each of the nation's four largest mobile carriers: AT&T, Verizon, T-Mobile and UScellular. These four wireless service providers voluntarily submitted the coverage data to create the map. Specifically, the map shows where customers can expect to receive 4G LTE service at a minimum download speed of 5 Mbps and upload speed of 1 Mbps. To use the map, consumers can enter in specific addresses or zoom in to locations to see where 4G LTE mobile data and voice service..."

Sr. RF Antenna Development Engineer Sought by Xylem

Senior RF Antenna Development Engineer Sought by Xylem - RF CafeXylem, a leading global water technology company dedicated to solving the world's most challenging water issues, seeks to hire seeks to hire a Senior RF Development Engineer to assist in the development and ongoing engineering support of the Sensus portfolio of Infrastructure and Smart City products. As part of the overall Sensus offering, Infrastructure and Smart City products serve as an intermediate communications interface with utility endpoints and utility providers. The Senior RF Development Engineer will work with other engineering disciplines in the development and ongoing technical support of the Sensus portfolio and will entail full life-cycle responsibilities from conceptual design of new product introduction to resolving any technical issue with legacy products. Product design ownership, collaborative attitude, and enthusiasm for delivering on-time within budget and quality requirements are crucial for success in this position...

Build a Field Strength Meter

Build a Field Strength Meter, September 1960, Popular Electronics - RFCafeThere is little incentive to build your own field strength meter these days when commercial instruments are readily available and relatively inexpensive. For instance, you can buy an MJF-801 FSM with a 100 kHz to 500 MHz spectrum coverage for just $45, brand new. More sophisticated, calibrated instruments are available for a lot more, but this basic unit is dirt cheap. However, if you want to read a little about the theory behind a field strength meter and see how one goes together, this article from a 1960 issue of Popular Electronics magazine provides that opportunity...

New for 2021! RF & Electronics Stencils for Visio

RF & Electronics stencils for Visio r4 - RF CafeWith more than 1000 custom-built stencils, this has got to be the most comprehensive set of Visio Stencils available for RF, analog, and digital system and schematic drawings! Every object has been built to fit proportionally on the provided A-, B- and C-size drawing page templates (or can use your own). Stencils are provided for equipment racks and test equipment, system block diagrams, conceptual drawings, and schematics. Unlike previous versions, these are NOT Stencils, but instead are all contained on tabbed pages within a single Visio document. That puts everything in front of you in its full glory. Just copy and paste what you need on your drawing. The file format is XML so everything plays nicely with Visio 2013 and later...

Many Thanks to Atenlab for Their Continued Support!

Atenlab microwave components - RF CafeAtenlab has been operating in Taiwan for more than a decade, and has sold and installed hundreds chambers around the world. Holistic, affordable Over-the-Air (OTA) measurement systems perform comprehensive measurement and test in a controlled environment. Compact Antenna Test Range (CATR) with one-touch operation supports multiple systems - 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G - and major instrument brands. [M]ulti-probe OTA measurement systems offer reduced time measurements over single-probe systems.

Monday the 16th

Making Your Career in Electronics

Making Your Career in Electronics, September 1960 Electronics World - RF CafeHere is a snapshot of how a career in electronics looked in the year 1960, per an article in Electronics World magazine. The field of electronics was in transition from vacuum tube technology to semiconductors, from point-to-point wiring in chassis to printed circuit boards, and from analog to digital. Opportunities abounded from all angles - legacy, contemporary, and futuristic. Jobs in electronics were readily available for people of education levels ranging from high school to post-graduate. Annual pay began at around $2,600 for assembly line workers to over $5,000 for experienced technicians. Assistant engineers and communications specialists with some college began at around$3,000 and ranged up to $8,000 or more for test engineers. Degreed engineers could expect to start at around $5,500 and go up well past $23,000. For a reference point, $1,000 per year in 1960 is the equivalent to about $9,317 in 2021 (about a 10x increase)...

Adaptive Passive Cancellation (APC) Replaces Front-End Filtering

Adaptive Passive Cancellation (APC) Replaces Front-End Filtering - RF Cafe"Forefront RF's game-changing Adaptive Passive Cancellation (APC) technology enables a smartphone's receiver to 'hear' the weakest signals while transmitting at full power. The transceiver's self-interference is cancelled by Forefront RF's chip which implements our unique APC circuits. Precise cancellation is maintained using software control to continually adjust the operation of the passive circuits. The APC circuits can be tuned over a wide frequency range, removing the need for a bank of switched SAW and BAW crystal filters. In this way, Forefront RF's chip reduces the space and cost taken by the RF front end in smartphones, wearables, and IoT devices. APC technology is XGen capable, working across the generations of mobile phone standards. From 3G through to emerging 6G concepts..."

GaN Complementary Logic Platform

GaN Complementary Logic Platform - RF Cafe"Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST) and Peking University in China have reported progress in producing gallium nitride (GaN) complementary logic (CL) circuits on low-cost silicon. The operation of the circuits was similar to that achieved with silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) p- and n-type transistors (CMOS). However, the GaN complementary logic circuits were based on a MOS p-FET, but an n-type heterojunction field-effect transistor (n-HFET) with a p-GaN gate electrode. A key property of these devices was that they operated in 'enhancement-mode' with current blocking at 0V gate potential - i.e. 'normally-off' operation. The researchers see potential uses in the control of circuits for power electronics, radio-frequency power amplifiers and harsh-environment applications..."

Channel Master Antennas

Channel Master Antennas Advertisement, January 1957 Radio and Television News - RF CafeOne sure giveaway to the age of a picture is the presence of a wheat penny, a buffalo nickel, or a Mercury dime. This 1957 advertisement in Radio & Television News magazine for Channel Master antennas has all three. It shows a walking Liberty half dollar as well. Quarters haven't changed much over the years, with George Washington's head on the obverse side since 1932. The wheat penny design ended in 1959 when the Lincoln Memorial was put on the reverse side in its place. Thomas Jefferson's head has been on the nickel since 1938. Theodore Roosevelt's head was ensconced on the obverse of the dime in 1946. John F. Kennedy was placed on the half dollar obverse in 1964. This ad is about antennas, not coins, though. For a lot, if not most, of RF Cafe visitors, there has always been cable and satellite television. For some, TV has always been available on their smartphones...

Communications Lead Technician Job Opening at RGNext

Communications Lead Technician Job Opening at RGNext - RF CafeReady to launch your career? RGNext (Range Generation Next) currently has an opening for a Communications Lead Technician. This position is located at Kwajalein Atoll. RGNext operates, maintains, and sustains mission-critical systems to provide safe and effective launch, testing, and tracking of Department of Defense, civil, commercial and international space lift vehicles. We support ballistic missile, guided weapon and aeronautical tests and evaluations as well as support space situational awareness operations and experiments to defend the United States to ensure our nation's safety. Our employees serve on the forefront of global defense and space operations. We offer our team of experienced, professional employees an environment of challenging, stimulating and personally and professionally rewarding career opportunities...

Promote Your Company on RF Cafe

Sponsor RF Cafe for as Little as $40 per Month - RF CafeRF Cafe typically receives 8,000-15,000 website visits each weekday and about half that on weekends. RF Cafe is a favorite of engineers, technicians, hobbyists, and students all over the world. With more than 16,000 pages in the Google search index, RF Cafe returns in favorable positions on many types of key searches, both for text and images. New content is added on a daily basis, which keeps the major search engines interested enough to spider it multiple times each day. Items added on the homepage often can be found in a Google search within a few hours of being posted. I also re-broadcast homepage items on LinkedIn. If you need your company news to be seen, RF Cafe is the place to be.

Please Visit Triad RF Systems to Thank Them for Their Support

Triad RF SystemsTriad RF Systems designs and manufactures RF power amplifiers and systems. Triad RF Systems comprises three partners (hence 'Triad') with over 40 years of accumulated knowledge of what is required to design, manufacture, market, sell and service RF/Microwave amplifiers and amplifier systems. PA, LNA, bi-directional, and frequency translating amplifiers are available, in formats including tower mount, benchtop, rack mount, and chassis mount. "We view Triad more as a technology partner than a vendor for our line-of-sight communications product line." Please check to see how they can help your project.

Sunday the 15th

Radio Theme Crossword Puzzle for August 15th

Radio Theme Crossword Puzzle for August 15th, 2021 - RF CafeThis Radio Theme crossword puzzle for August 15th, 2021, contains only words and clues related to engineering, mathematics, chemistry, physics, and other technical words. As always, this crossword contains no names of politicians, mountain ranges, exotic foods or plants, movie stars, or anything of the sort unless it/he/she is related to this puzzle's technology theme (e.g., Hedy Lamarr or the Bikini Atoll). The technically inclined cruciverbalists amongst us will appreciate the effort. Enjoy!


These archive pages are provided in order to make it easier for you to find items that you remember seeing on the RF Cafe homepage. Of course probably the easiest way to find anything on the website is to use the "Search RF Cafe" box at the top of every page. About RF Cafe.

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RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The World Wide Web (Internet) was largely an unknown entity at the time and bandwidth was a scarce commodity. Dial-up modems blazed along at 14.4 kbps while tying up your telephone line, and a nice lady's voice announced "You've Got Mail" when a new message arrived...

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