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Homepage Archive - January 2019 (page 3)

These archive pages are provided in order to make it easier for you to find items that you remember seeing on the RF Cafe homepage. Of course probably the easiest way to find anything on the website is to use the "Search RF Cafe" box at the top of every page. About RF Cafe.

Homepage Archive Pages

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See Page 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 of the January 2019 homepage archives.

Friday 18

Units and Standards of Electrical Measure

Units and Standards of Electrical Measure, August 1964 Electronics World - RF CafeIn 1988, the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) was re-named National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) because a government bureaucrat needed to justify his/her position and the financing to change all the signs, brochures, and letterhead would be paid for with OPM (Other People's Money, pronounced like 'opium'). Regardless of its name, the NBS is charged with establishing, maintaining, and enforcing standard units of measure for the country, as well as with coordinating standard units with other countries. It is interesting to read how standards have changed over the years, and what methods have been suggested for establishing those standards; e.g., the Ohm (Ω) could have been based on a foot of copper wire weighing 100 grains, an English mile of No. 16 copper wire ...

Bluetooth SIG to Intro Bluetooth Mesh Specifications for Smart Home Apps

Bluetooth SIG to Intro Bluetooth Mesh Specifications for Smart Home Apps - RF Cafe"The Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG), in a bid to address the increased adoption of Bluetooth mesh networking in Smart Home solutions, has formed a new Smart Home Subgroup. The announcement follows the decision from a growing number of market leaders to adopt Bluetooth mesh networking as a strategic communications protocol for smart home solutions. The new Smart Home Subgroup has been established to create additional Bluetooth mesh model specifications for smart home and related applications. Mesh models constitute the application layer of Bluetooth mesh networking and define the behavior of devices connected to a Bluetooth mesh network. For example, mesh models define how a Bluetooth mesh light is controlled by a Bluetooth mesh switch ..."

The Mother Lode of Communications Tutorials

Charan Langton The Mother Lode of Communications Tutorials - RF CafeA few years ago I posted links to this amazing collection of tutorials written by Charan Langton. She relocated her content to a WordPress server so they all have new URLs now (which I have updated). Ms. Langton's website is called Complex to Real. Says she, "Communications is not an easy science. The math is heavy, and intuition is slow to develop. To complicate things further, the field does not stay put. New concepts are always coming to the fore. This website offers tutorials I have written on various topics in analog and digital communications that will help you cut through this complexity. I keep adding to this collection, albeit very slowly. Our field represents a pinnacle of human achievement in applied mathematics. During our engineering education, most of us don't develop the intuitive understanding ..."

Radio & Wireless Week 2019

Radio & Wireless Week 2019 - RF CafeThe Radio & Wireless Week 2019 event will be held at the Rosen Plaza in Orlando on January 20-23. The venue is located in family-friendly Orlando near Walt Disney World, Universal Orlando Resort and SeaWorld. RWW2019 consists of five related conferences that focus on the intersection between wireless communication theory, systems, circuits, and device technologies, creating a unique forum for engineers to discuss various technologies for state-of-the-art wireless systems and their end-use applications. The 4-day conference bridges the gaps between digital, RF, hardware, and software, which all need to be seamlessly combined to keep the wireless industry and mobile applications growing ...

R&S NRQ6 Frequency Selective Power Sensor

Rohde & Schwarz R&S® NRQ6 Frequency Selective Power Sensor - RF CafeThe R&S® NRQ6 combines the accuracy of a power meter with the dynamic range of a spectrum analyzer. It is the first of its kind and performs extremely precise and fast power measurements. - i.e. power measurements on a selected transmission channel - down to −130 dBm. It delivers extremely high-precision, high-speed measurements beyond the limits of currently available power meters. In addition to conventional continuous average measurements, the R&S®NRQ6 has a trace display function and also performs ACLR measurements. Key Facts: Frequency selective power measurements, Frequency range: 50 MHz to 6 GHz, Power measurement ...

China's State Grid Corp Crushes Power Transmission Records

China's State Grid Corp Crushes Power Transmission Records - RF CafeCheck out the number of wheels on the transport trailer! Note this is DC power - Has Edison won "The War of the Currents" over Tesla in China? "State Grid's 1.1 MV DC line pushes power from Xinjiang to eastern megacities over 3000 km to the east. China's primary grid operator has energized its biggest and most powerful line yet, a 1.1 MV direct current (DC) behemoth that crushes world records for voltage, distance and power. The new ultra-high voltage DC (UHVDC) line built by Beijing-based State Grid Corporation of China can transmit up to 12 GW. That is enough to power 50M Chinese households, according to a statement issued in Chinese by State Grid last week, and 50% more than most of the 800 kV UHVDC lines that State Grid has built over the past decade ..."

Copper Mountain Technologies: Vector Network Analyzers

Copper Mountain TechnologiesCopper Mountain Technologies develops innovative and robust RF test and measurement solutions for engineers all over the world. Copper Mountain's extensive line of unique form factor Vector Network Analyzers include an RF measurement module and a software application which runs on any Windows PC, laptop or tablet, connecting to the measurement hardware via USB interface. The result is a lower cost, faster, more effective test process that fits into the modern workspace in lab, production, field and secure testing environments ...

Thursday 17

Television Transmission Lines

Television Transmission Lines, May 1952 Radio & Television News - RF CafeWhen minimum signal loss in a transmission line is required for maximum power transmission between the receiver and/or transmitter, nothing come close to waveguide. Waveguide is very expensive and for frequencies below a gigahertz or so, very impractical (or even impossible) due to the required physical size. It has the advantage, too, of being nearly impervious to outside interference or leakage to the outside, and it can handle extremely high power levels. Waveguide can be installed in almost any manner and anywhere without concern for signal disruption. Its biggest vulnerability is probably arcing due to contaminants within when the system has not been purged of humid air and backfilled with a gas such as dry nitrogen. Coaxial cable has many advantages of waveguide, but is less expensive and easier to install and maintain ...

Thomas Edison in John Hancock Advertisement

Thomas Edison in John Hancock Advertisement from the April 29, 1950 The Saturday Evening Post - RF CafePresenting yourself or your company as being modeled after a person of great accomplishment has been a common promotional tactic for as long as there has been print media. The John Hancock chose in this issue of The Saturday Evening Post to suggest, albeit by an indirect approach, to elicit the admiration Americans had for Thomas Edison' lust for innovation and desire to make people's lives better in hopes that readers would associate Edison with the insurance company. While the juxtaposition is strained, I do like one line in particular, "He lured electricity into a bottle and taught it to glow with good cheer." This short tribute to on of the world's greatest engineers is worth your a few moments of your valuable time ...

QuinStar App Notes for mm-Wave Systems

QuinStar App Notes for mm-Wave Systems - RF CafeQuinStar Technology engineers have written a variety of application notes on mm-wave systems and components. Topics include Sensitive Receivers,Radiometers, Radar Subsystems,Communication Subsystems, and Radios. QuinStar designs and manufactures millimeter-wave products for communication, scientific, and test applications. We excel in millimeter-wave products, microelectronic assembly, rapid prototyping, and mass customization. As a result, we serve both established and emerging markets with system applications in the commercial, scientific, and defense arenas ...

Next-Gen Wi-Fi 6 Certification Program Coming in 2019

Next-Gen Wi-Fi 6 Certification Program Coming in 2019 - RF Cafe"Wi-Fi Alliance has introduced the next generation Wi-Fi certification program - Wi-Fi CERTIFIED 6™ - to ensure devices based on IEEE 802.11ax technology meet industry standards for interoperability and security. The Wi-Fi Alliance certification program, coming in the third quarter of 2019, will provide capacity, coverage, and performance required by users to experience next-generation Wi-Fi use cases, from streaming ultra high-definition (Ultra HD) movies to mission-critical business applications. Advanced capabilities supported by Wi-Fi CERTIFIED 6 will bring innovation for Wi-Fi to excel even in diverse Wi-Fi environments with many devices. Key benefits include higher data rates ..."

Concentric Technology Solutions: RF Shield Boxes & TEM Cells

Concentric Technology Solutions RF Shield Box Products - RF CafeConcentric Technology Solutions is your one stop source for RF shield boxes, RF enclosures, Bluetooth testers, WiMax testers, RFID testers and RF power amplifiers. CTS can supply off-the-shelf or custom products for your testing needs requiring maximum RF shielding in order to produce repeatable results in laboratory and production environments. Manual and pneumatic operation is available. TEM cells, glove boxes, forensic enclosures, and special purpose per your requirements.

Wednesday 16

Test Equipment Scene

Test Equipment Scene, January 1972 Popular Electronics - RF CafeJust as the evolution from vacuum tubes to transistors changed the test equipment (TE) landscape in the 1970s with drastic decreases in physical size, ruggedness, price, functionality, portability, bandwidth, and power consumption, today's products move ahead at an equal or even greater pace. Microprocessors make possible programmability and reconfigurability, mathematical signal processing, LCD displays, high speed interconnectability, data storage, automation, and intuitive user interfaces. Surface mount components and other advanced production methods, super high bandwidth semiconductors, advanced filter construction, and light weight, rugged packaging have resulted in an amazing selection of special-purpose and multi-purpose test equipment. This 1972 Popular Electronics article gushed over the relatively recent advent of triggered sweep oscilloscopes ...

Skyworks Powers Next Generation 4G/5G Mobile Hotspots

Skyworks Powers Next Generation 4G/5G Mobile Hotspots - RF CafeSkyworks Solutions, an innovator of high performance analog semiconductors connecting people, places and things, today announced that its SkyOne® Ultra 3.0 portfolio is being leveraged by Inseego (NASDAQ: INSG), a pioneer in 5G and intelligent IoT device-to-cloud solutions, for their next generation mobile hotspot. Given the significant growth in mobile subscribers and densification of data traffic - which will intensify with 5G - demand for portable, reliable, anytime connectivity is rapidly increasing. Skyworks' compact, highly-integrated front-end system is being utilized in combination with Qualcomm's LTE X20 modem to power Inseego's MiFi 8800L device, the industry's first commercially available gigabit LTE platform for Cat 18 ..."

The Series Circuit: Why Know Circuits?

The Series Circuit: Why Know Circuits? NAVPERS 10622 - RF CafeChapter 8 of the U.S. Navy's basic electronics course of study, titled "The Series Circuit: Why Know Circuits?" introduces the concept of series electrical circuit analysis. After discussing basic characteristics and applications of resistors, capacitors, inductors, conductors, and insulators, analyzing series circuits are traditionally the beginning point for fledgling technicians, scientists, hobbyists, and engineers. Purely resistive series circuits have just one current path with the same value through every component, making calculations extremely simple. Things start getting a bit tougher when reactive components are introduced, but simple trigonometry takes care of that. The move into parallel circuits is typically the first barrier that washes out students least likely to succeed. A few guys in my USAF tech school had to change career fields after about the third weeks of Basic Electronics because they could not grasp ...

Copper Mountain VNA Impedance Measurements Webinar

Copper Mountain VNA Impedance Measurements Webinar - RF CafeCopper Mountain Technologies' Steve Sandler will present a webinar on January 22, at 11 am EST, about VNA Impedance Measurement for Power Distribution Networks. Almost all modern circuits are sensitive to power quality, which to a large extent is a measurement of the power rail impedance. This is because flat impedance power rails result in much lower noise than power rails that aren't flat. In RF circuits the peaks generally result in increased phase noise, while in digital circuits the issues are related to the allowed voltage window for the ASICs. In high-speed transceivers, these peaks result in jitter, which is also related to phase noise. In analog circuits, the peaks ...

R&S: How to Select the Right Power Sensor

R&S: How to Select the Right Power Sensor - RF CafeRohde & Schwarz has produced a white paper titled, "How to Select the Right Power Sensor and Get Results Faster." One of the most fundamental RF measurement tools is the power sensor . Today , the marketplace is filled with lots of choices and bold claims of fast speeds and large numbers of readings per second, but when sifting through the datasheets it can be difficult to determine what sensor will meet the needs for any particular measurement. In this white paper we will review the fundamentals of RF power sensors and discuss what you need to consider when selecting a power sensor. Today, the RF power sensor marketplace is filled with bold claims of fast speeds and large numbers of readings per second, but when sifting through the data sheets, it can be difficult to determine ...

Many Thanks to ERZIA for Continued Support!

Many Thanks to ERZIA for Continued Support!RF Cafe's continued existence depends on companies like ERZIA providing support. ERZIA produces microwave and mm-wave modular amplifiers and integrated assemblies operating from low frequencies up to 100 GHz. Their catalogue of standard amplifier modules comprises more than 100 different models, having also a high capacity of customization for amplifiers and integrated assemblies. Some of products have space heritage and are used in aerospace, commercial, military and scientific systems, having a wide range of final applications ...

Tuesday 15

TVI and the "Dallas Plan"

TVI and the "Dallas Plan", May 1952 Radio & Television News - RF CafeAmateur radio operators have been blamed for a lot of radio frequency interference (RFI) and television interference (TVI) over the years, with some being justified and a lot being unjustified. The surest sign that a Ham set is interfering with your entertainment box is when you actually hear voice or a series of dits and dahs. However, when the interference is a steady or waver buzzing sound or scratchy intermittent hash, chances are greater that the interference is coming from a noisy motor in a vacuum cleaner, a kitchen blender, a power tool, or an arcing power line transformer / cracked insulator. The American Radio Relay League (ARRL) has jumped through burning hoops (figuratively) to educate licensed operators on how to avoid complaints by assuring gear is functioning properly, and educating the public about the likelihood that the problems they experience are not coming from the guy down the street with big antennas in the yard but from the next-door neighbor's swimming pool filter pump ...

Antenova Diversity Kit Uses New Cat4 LTE Standard

Antenova Diversity Kit Uses New Cat4 LTE Standard - RF CafeAntenova, manufacturer of antennas and RF antenna modules for M2M and the Internet of Things, is to show a development kit for a certified Cat4/LTE design at CES2019. LTE Category 4 (Cat4) is the next step in 4G LTE device capability. A Cat4 device uses two antennas - a main antenna for transmit and receive, and a second antenna for receive only. The two antennas radiate in different pattern directions which means they will always provide a good signal in any orientation, as the unit is moved around or turned. The kit gives designers a short cut to a successful Cat4 design and certifications, which can otherwise be difficult to achieve ...

Thanks Again to Rohde & Schwarz for Continued Support!

Rohde & Schwarz RM & Microwave Test Equipment - RF CafeRohde & Schwarz develops, produces and markets test & measurement, information and communications technology. Focus is on test and measurement, broadcast and media, cybersecurity, secure communications, monitoring and network testing. Markets serviced are wireless, the automotive industry, aerospace and defense, industrial electronics, research and education, broadcast and media network operations, consumer electronics, cybersecurity for business and governments, communications and security solutions for critical infrastructures and the armed forces, reconnaissance equipment for homeland and external security, and much more ...

Decimeter Waves - The Future of Radio

Decimeter Waves - The Future of Radio, November 1935 Short Wave Craft - RF CafeMillimeter waves (mm-waves) are the subject of a great many articles today describing advances being made in the part of the spectrum above 30 GHz (Ka and EHF bands); however, when this piece was published in 1935, it was decimeter waves that were the big to-do. Crowded frequency bands have been a problem since the beginning of radio because technology is constantly not only filling available bandwidth, but also pushing the frontiers higher. The advantage of going higher in frequency is that required bandwidths for existing modulation schemes represent a smaller percentage of the center frequency. For example, an 802.11b WiFi signal's 22 MHz bandwidth represents roughly 1% of its 2.4 MHz center frequency. 802.11a does 20 MHz at 5 GHz for 0.4%. Extend that center frequency up to 50 GHz and the channel occupancy ...

ASIC Design Engineer Wanted by Nokomis

ASIC Designer Engineer (Nokomis) - RF CafeNokomis, the preeminent company in the world in the detection, identification, and geolocation of electronics, currently has an opening for an ASIC Designer Engineer. This position is for an engineer with significant Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) design and development experience that will be part of a team with diverse talents and skills. The candidate will be involved in all phases of engineering and design of electrical and electronic devices. We are seeking versatile problem solvers that can apply their skills and experience to a wide array of design challenges and produce results that enhance the company's electrical and electronic device offerings. Innovative and driven engineers who bring unique solutions to challenging engineering problems are highly desirable. The engineer will develop and implement Integrated circuit design as part of a larger complex system ...

Why Reshoring Makes for Better Business

Why Reshoring Makes for Better Business - RF Cafe"The current trade war with China has many companies re-evaluating their outsourcing practices. But even before the tariff hikes, many companies were reshoring their manufacturing because in the long run, it's better for business. There's a reason the U.S. trade deficit with China exceeded $301B in 2018. Cheap labor and fewer regulations mean that 'Made in China' tends to cost less than 'Made in America.' But the ongoing trade war with China has led many companies to re-evaluate the practice of outsourcing from a cost-efficiency perspective. That's with good reason, since the U.S. is currently imposing about $250B in tariffs on products coming from China. With recent tariffs combined with quality issues, the case of reshoring grows stronger. The notion that outsourcing could be detrimental ..."

Triad RF Systems: RF/Microwave Amplifiers and Amplifier Systems

Triad RF SystemsTriad RF Systems designs and manufactures RF power amplifiers and systems. Triad RF Systems comprises three partners (hence 'Triad') with over 40 years of accumulated knowledge of what is required to design, manufacture, market, sell and service RF/Microwave amplifiers and amplifier systems. PA, LNA, bi-directional, and frequency translating amplifiers are available, in formats including tower mount, benchtop, rack mount, and chassis mount. "We view Triad more as a technology partner than a vendor for our line-of-sight communications product line." Please check to see how they can help your project ...

Monday 14

Editorial, January 1972 Popular Electronics

Editorial, January 1972 Popular Electronics - RF CafePopular Electronics editor Milton Snitzer used his space in the January 1972 issue to announce to readers the merging of Electronics World magazine with itself. Electronics World was published monthly from May 1959 through December 1971. Electronics World editor William Stocklin wrote an editorial in that final issue alerting his readers to the change coming in the next edition. "Over the years many people have asked us 'Why two electronics books in the same company ?' We thought we had a pretty good answer, but times change, and evolution makes its mark in the publishing field, too. It is therefore with a mixture of sadness for the old and exhilaration for the new that we bring you the news that next month, Electronics World will merge with its sister publication, Popular Electronics, which even today, before the merger, has the largest circulation of any electronics magazine in the world ...

Chinese Rover Exploring Far Side of Moon

Chinese Rover Exploring Far Side of Moon - RF Cafe"A robotic Chinese spacecraft named Chang'e 4 braked out of lunar orbit and slowed to a controlled touchdown on the far side of the moon Thursday, a first in the history of space exploration. The lander later deployed a small rover to explore the surrounding landscape. The spacecraft landed at 0226 GMT on Jan. 3 (9:26 p.m. EST on Jan. 2) in the 110-mile-wide Von Karman crater, located in the southern hemisphere on the back side of the moon. Chinese websites released several images captured during the lander's descent, and then revealed several more pictures taken of the mission's six-wheeled rover as it drove down a ramp and onto the lunar surface ..."

Bandwidth Requirements for Pulse-Type Transmissions

Bandwidth Requirements for Pulse-Type Transmissions, February 1945 QST - RF CafeIn 1945, when this article was published in QST, radar was still in its infancy. Engineers were already aware of the need to shape pulse waveforms from experience with CW keying and the need to mitigate the effects of "chirping." A perfectly rectangular pulse in the time domain, as we learned in our signals and systems courses, creates a sin (x)/x response in the frequency domain. The Fourier transform shows that a perfectly square pulse in the time domain is the summation of an infinite number of odd harmonics of the fundamental (1st harmonic). The first few harmonics are audible to the CW copier as higher frequency "chirps." To reduce the annoyance (and wasted transmitted energy), time constants were added to the leading and trailing edges of the waveform to remove the higher frequencies, while leaving the pulse shape sufficiently rectangular to achieve its goal ...

Materials Scientist Wanted by Nokomis

Materials Scientist (Nokomis) - RF CafeNokomis is a dynamic technology company with over 16 years history of technical excellence in the development of next-generation Radio Frequency (RF) sensor systems. During the last 6 years, Nokomis has experienced rapid growth in the area of materials development, both aimed at supporting the core RF technology areas and also independent technology areas, such as EO/IR sensor materials and ultra-low wear protective films. Nokomis is seeking innovative and ambitious Scientists and Engineers, to join and complement our 20+ member R&D team. The Materials Scientist role at Nokomis will drive innovative R&D efforts through government grants and contracts to develop revolutionary materials and materials applications ...

Excitons Pave Way to Higher-Performance Electronics

Excitons Pave Way to Higher-Performance Electronics - RF Cafe"After developing a method to control exciton flows at room temperature, EPFL scientists have discovered new properties of these quasiparticles that can lead to more energy-efficient electronic devices. They were the first to control exciton flows at room temperature. And now, the team of scientists from EPFL's Laboratory of Nanoscale Electronics and Structures (LANES) has taken their technology one step further. They have found a way to control some of the properties of excitons and change the polarization of the light they generate. This can lead to a new generation of electronic devices with transistors that undergo less energy loss and heat dissipation. The scientists' discovery forms part of a new field of research called valleytronics and has just been published in Nature Photonics ..."

RF & Connector Technology: Coax Connectors, Cable, Passive Components

RF & Connector Technology - RF CafeProviding full solution service is our motto, not just selling goods. RF & Connector Technology has persistently pursued a management policy stressing quality assurance system and technological advancement. From your very first contact, you will be supported by competent RF specialists; all of them have several years of field experience in this industry allowing them to suggest a fundamental solution and troubleshooting approach. Coaxial RF connectors, cable assemblies, antennas, terminations, attenuators, couplers, dividers, and more. Practically, we put priority on process inspection at each step of workflow as well as during final inspection in order to actualize "Zero Defects ..."

Sunday 13

RF Cafe Engineering & Science Crossword Puzzle for January 13

RF Cafe Engineering & Science Crossword Puzzle January 13, 2019Each week, for the sake of all avid cruciverbalists amongst us, I create a new technology-themed crossword puzzle using only words from my custom-created lexicon related to engineering, science, mathematics, chemistry, physics, astronomy, etc. You will never find among the words names of politicians, mountain ranges, exotic foods or plants, movie stars, or anything of the sort. You might, however, see someone or something in the exclusion list who or that is directly related to this puzzle's theme, such as Hedy Lamarr or the Bikini Atoll, respectively. Enjoy ...

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    Kirt Blattenberger,


RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The World Wide Web (Internet) was largely an unknown entity at the time and bandwidth was a scarce commodity. Dial-up modems blazed along at 14.4 kbps while tying up your telephone line, and a nice lady's voice announced "You've Got Mail" when a new message arrived...

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