was founded by Engineers for Engineers. Amplical is determined to
be a leading supplier of quality
RF microwave components.
the latest in RF microwave technology, Amplical focuses on premium
quality amplifiers and attenuators at affordable prices. Amplifiers
are tuned for exceptional amplitude flatness and our attenuators
are designed for precision and the utmost in accuracy. Our products
are typically available from stock.
electric wristwatch went on sale on January 3, 1957 - the
Ventura model, by Hamilton Electric, and it retailed for $200. I
use the event as the theme of the RF Cafe logo for that day in history.
Unlike today's electric watches which use a crystal for timing,
the early watches used a pulsed motor to energize the balance wheel
coil, in place of a mainspring and an escapement mechanism. The
watch shown in this article from the February 1958 edition of radio-electronics
is a model 500, which you can find more detail about on the Unique
Watch Guide website.
Wireless Solutions, a global provider of high-quality M2M solutions,
products and services and Parsec Technologies, a global supplier
of advanced amplifier technology communications products, solutions,
and services, today announced that a combination of the companies'
technologies results in the world's lowest profile companion solution
GPS receiver and antenna. For host devices able to accommodate
higher volumetric symmetry, assembly of the components can be made
to fit a 6x16x8 mm volume. Along with class leading miniaturization,
the receiver outperforms top traditional designs...
was put into orbit on August 12, 1960. This article was written
2½ years earlier in 1958 by Radio-Electronics editor Hugo Gernsback.
A technology visionary and prolific inventor and writer, Mr. Gernsback
astutely outlined the vast number of advantages that had already
been and would in the future be afforded the science community by
virtue of a satellite's perspective from space. Two of the Soviet
Union's Sputnik satellites had revealed the surprisingly irregular
shape and gravitational influence of the Earth, information about
the upper atmosphere, and aspects of
space environment effects on radio communications. America was
scrambling to catch up. Gernsback and others postulated the configuration
of active relay transceivers powered by solar cells and storage...
by decades of experience in the design of Noise Sources and Instrumentation
for telecommunications, Noisewave is a complete supplier of specialty
Components and Test Equipment. Noise is our focus, our business,
so we can help yours. We provide our customers with high quality
standard and custom noise test solutions to meet commercial and
military wireless applications.
Mason often used two precisely timed tactics to wrap up his courtroom
cases. The first was asking the sworn party on the stand something
like, "What if I told you we found the knife you threw away and
Forensics lifted your fingerprints off it?" Said perp's council
and the spectators would gasp in amazement and the murderer would
subsequently offer a full confession, then ask Mr. Mason how he
found the knife. "I never said we found the knife, I said 'what
IF I told you we found the knife?'" The second tactic was making
inadmissible statements for the jury to hear, knowing that the judge
would instruct them to disregard it. As Robert Ambrogi states in
this article titled, "Excluding
Expert Testimony the Jury Already Heard...
Electronics has released new designs for a 729 MHz LC bandpass filter,
an 800 / 1600 / 2400 MHz triplexer filter, and a 813/858 MHz PTT
SAW duplexer filter. All can be ordered directly through their
AMCrf web store.
following paper titled "The
Design of Ultra Narrow-band Amplifiers Using Small Signal Varactor
Up-converters for ESM, ECM, ECCM, and ELINT Applications" was
submitted for publication by Planar Monolithics Industries, Inc.
(PMI), and has been duly accepted by the Technical Committee
and Management of EWCI-2014. The full text of the paper can be found
RF Cafe or on the
another blast from the past, I just found an advertisement by Bell
Telephone Laboratories announcing
"Twistor" memory in a 1958 edition of Radio-Electronics. According
to Bell, their radically new "Twistor" magnetic memory matrix was
vastly superior to conventional ferrite core memories. It used hair-thin
magnetic wires (more like a flattened tape)
interwoven with equally thin copper wires to store and read out
ones and zeroes. Doing so reduced manufacturing costs, by eliminating
the relatively expensive ferrite cores and eliminating the difficult
job of threading the read, write, and sense wires through the core
centers. Twistor memory also required less current to operate, was
denser, and weighed less than core memory. Within a decade CMOS
RAM was available to replace the magnetic memory, but from a reliability
Engineering, an international radio frequency
(RF) and embedded systems solutions
provider, announced today that the company has added AeroGear Telemetry,
Inc. as an authorized representative of its products and design
services for the Mid-Atlantic, Southeast and South Central regions
of the U.S., in total
17 states as well as the District of Columbia. With over 100 years
of combined sales experience serving the Military, Aerospace, and
Government market sectors, AeroGear provides expertise with telemetry,
instrumentation, and surveillance & reconnaissance communication
electronics solutions. "NuWaves' sales and support footprint has
Journal, an industry leading Horizon House technical publication,
has released the industry's first
magazine that uses the augmented reality app Layar to overlay
digital information onto the pages. When readers scan the pages
that are marked with the "Scan page using Layar app" logo with their
mobile device, digital information is overlaid onto the print page.
Readers will be able to experience more engaging rich media delivered
automatically and can tap the screen to view other related information.
Videos and animations appear to "play out of the page" in the augmented
all have pet peeves, which begs the question, "What is yours?" One
of my pet peeves is the nearly universal misuse of the phrase "begs
the question." As presented in the first sentence, the usage is
utterly incorrect. To "beg the question" does not mean a question
is begging to be asked. Rather, it describes the occasion of a self-proving
statement, a logical fallacy or circular reasoning. Grammarians
refer to the transgression as "BTQ
Abuse." Supposedly, the original derivation is from the Latin
term "petitio principii," meaning to petition the principle, or
to challenge the assertion of a statement. For example, if I say,
"ABC Corporation's receivers are superior to XYZ Corporation's inferior
receivers," I have begged the question...
Receiver Technology: Principles, Architectures and Applications,
by Ralf Rudersdorfer. Basic principles and theories of present-day
communications receiver technology presenting realization concepts
at the system level, taking into consideration the various types
of users. Details of the circuitry are described providing the reader
with an understanding of fully digitized radio receivers, offering
an insight into the state-of-the-art. The author outlines fields
of applications and their features and considers the specialty of
high-quality radio receivers. They are typically used for radio
surveillance, signal intelligence, modern radio bearing and at the
classical radio services and describes the entire range of parameters
that are useful for the characterization of these receivers.
more things change, the more they remain the same. People
(including, admittedly, me) don't want
to have to pay for any type of media delivery, especially when it
arrives via air waves or the Internet. We expect to pay for print
media like books, newspapers, and magazines... unless they are available
online, in which case they should be free. Six months before
I was born, a reader of Radio-Electronics magazine wrote
to declare his outrage at the fledgling industry of
Pay Television. That a viewer would be expected to pay the broadcaster
for a show that was being, in his opinion, amply subsidized by advertisers,
was an outrageous concept, an unthinkable assault on all that is
holy. While his indignation was probably shared by the majority
of the television viewing public, evidently the maniacal scheme
Crooks sent me an e-mail alerting me to a free* distributed element
filter program he just released called "FilterDE."
It was designed to assist in the development of distributed element
RF microwave filters, consisting of series and open shunt transmission
line elements for low pass filters, or parallel coupled lines for
band pass filters. For low pass filters, FilterDE uses an iterative
optimizer, enabling the user to design a filter by specifying the
desired performance of the filter and the number of poles. For band
pass filters, it uses edge coupled filters based on Chebyshev polynomials.
FilterDE uses ideal, loss-less models for distributed elements.
This means that there will be higher insertion loss and more rounded
transition regions." I downloaded and ran FilterDE and entered parameters...
RF Systems, was formed in 2010 with the objective to solve the
problem of high power amplifiers (HPAs)
being the Achilles heel in most RF radios. We have solutions for
integrating high performance HPAs into sophisticated RF
and systems without sacrificing efficiency and linearity. Triad
RF Systems serves all areas of the RF and Microwave industries including
military, satellite and commercial communications. Our products
operate from 10 MHz to 20 GHz.
barman says, "We don't serve faster-than-light particles here."
A tachyon enters a bar. - Anon. Ok,
so it's not really a quote, but put it on the cover of your next
presentation for a good laugh.
sculpt crop circles with regularity on the country sides of England,
so the appearance of this 310-foot pattern carved into a barley
field in California left the locals wondering if ET and his gang
were broadening their "hood" by tagging spots in the U.S. As it
turns out, the spectacle of
agricultural art was the handiwork of the NVIDIA company, done
as a promotional scheme to draw (cut, actually) attention to their
newest über video microprocessor chip. Sporting 192 processor
cores, the Tegra K1 claims,
"the chip would make for a tablet more powerful than an Xbox 360
or PlayStation 3 game console, while consuming one-twentieth the
power." Those little depressions in the center of the IC are the
Braille form of the number 192. GPS-equipped tractors are able to
create patterns with amazing accuracy, but in this case...
Sunday I create an
engineering-themed crossword puzzle using a word list that I
personally created and added to during over a decade of making puzzles.
All of the words are related to engineering, science, mathematics,
chemistry, astronomy, etc. There are no numbnut clues about movie
stars or clothing designers. Enjoy.
Electronics invites visitors to explore its new website at
new website is designed with improved navigation and functionality.
Customers can access data sheets for nearly one thousand previously
designed filters or request a custom filter online. Please visit
our new site and give us your feedback using the customer feedback
form. Providing custom and standard innovative filter solutions
for both the commercial and military markets for over 40 years.
is the very first episode of the "Carl &
Jerry" series that ran for many years in Popular Electronics
magazine. In the manner of The Hardy Boys, Nancy Drew, et al, Carl
and Jerry are two teenage boys who, in their pursuit of their electronics
hobby, manage to get themselves involved in crime scene investigations,
in odd situations with friends and adults, and even while horsing
around in their basement laboratory. Amateur radio was a key feature
of many of their adventures. John T. Frye authored every adventure
as he developed his sleuthing buddies over time to go from a frumpy
Jerry Bishop with a "well-padded frame" and a Farside-esque bespectacled
Carl Anderson to a couple more stealthy, professional looking investigators
who sometimes employed MacGyver-like tactics...
RF has published a list of most popular on its website in 2013.
Categories include RF / microwave components,
stories, test equipment, and white papers. There are currently 129,148
RF & Microwave Products from over 318 Companies listed in 217
Categories listed in the
RF & Microwave Company Directory on everything RF.
National Company of Cambridge, Massachusetts, was one of the
first large distributors of electronics components and appliances.
Believe it or not, National began life as the National Toy Company.
Thanks to the efforts of Mr. James Millen, W1HRX, in designing and
marketing high quality radio products, the company evolved into
a favorite source by both amateur radio operators and casual listeners
of shortwave radios. The NC80X covered the commercial broadcast
band and a couple shortwave bands, whereas the NC81X covered only
multiple shortwave bands for amateur radio use.
this article discusses audio waveform measurements, the lesson learned
applies equally well to any waveform frequency. In the RF realm,
we are accustomed to injecting two sinewaves at equal amplitudes
into a unit under test (UUT) and reading
the relative output powers of the two input signals and the
n-order intermodulation signals. It is usually a very simple
test with simple to interpret results handily shown on the display
of a spectrum analyzer. The task is made a bit more difficult when
injecting signals of unequal strengths and especially when measuring
in units of voltage as a viewed on an oscilloscope display. I dare
say most of us need to do some head scratching and looking up of
formulas to pull off such a measurement.
organization has been setup to design, develop, manufacture, test,
and market complex state-of-the-art hybrid RF MIC and MMIC components,
supercomponents, and subsystems. Unique products for applications
in space, military, commercial, telecommunications, and consumer
electronics systems from DC to 40 GHz.
I commented on the behind-the-scenes efforts by many people that
go into developing products which eventually become ubiquitous in
our everyday world. Just like looking up the answer to an end of
the chapter problem in the back of a textbook, the result often
seems so obvious that you wonder why it wasn't apparent to begin
with. The newest installment of
Sherlock Ohms is a great illustration of the point. This anecdote
by A. David Boccuti is a prime example of dedication to finding
cost-effective solutions to manufacturing challenges. Having worked
in concert with many mechanical engineers over the years, I have
amassed a lot of respect for the ingenuity exhibited by my fellow
product development travelers. In the 'old days,' while under the
employment of defense contractors, price...
Technologies Corp., a leading provider of high performance RF/microwave,
power, and security solutions for critical and high-reliability
applications, is now offering a
switched multiplexer that includes an integrated LNA. Designed
for radar, EW and ELINT applications, this new multiplexer provides
excellent broadband performance across the 2 GHz to 18 GHz
range using suspended substrate stripline
(SSS) technology. Specifically suited for agile receiver
front ends and directional finding systems, API’s switched multiplexer
provides a 20 dB gain with a 5 dB noise figure and fast
switching at 100 ns...
searching for some employment news, I ran across a U.S. Bureau of
Labor Statistics web page that gave
salaries for engineers and technicians in 2012. I doubt the
numbers moved much in 2013. Median is the point where half the samples
are less than and half the samples are greater than that median
number. Personally, I prefer a mean average number along with a
standard deviation. The problem with a median value is that it is
possible (albeit not necessarily probable) that the lower half values
all lie within, say, 2% below the median, while the upper half values
lie 200% above the median. In such a situation the mean average
of the sample would be almost 100% (2x) the median and the standard
deviation, and the standard deviation would be nearly equal to the
median. For example this set of sample data produces the following
statistical numbers values...
you appreciate good humor, then you'll appreciate these comics from
the January 1958 edition of Radio-Electronics. Their themes
are representative of situations common in the era - like TV repairman
woes and men obsessed over electronics gadgets while ignoring their
wives. Not that there are ever any comics in today's electronics
magazines, but if there were, they likely would poke fun at Oblivion
texters and depict fathers being made to look like fools by their
disrespectful kids for not knowing how to program a Roku player.
of FM Broadcasting" could be a contemporary headline. The decline
of broadcast radio has been a major concern of station owners for
well over a decade since Internet and satellite radio has dominated
the venue through which listeners access radio stations. Local broadcasters
have long aired syndicated programs that include national advertising,
but the money to pay for those segments came from revenue supplied
largely by local companies. FM broadcasting began commercially around
1945 in the familiar 88-108 MHz band yielded by the military
after World War II, and grew in number of stations very rapidly
in the first few years. Then, it began a decline for a few more
years until finally leveling off after...
visitor Cornell D. sent me an e-mail about a website called
Iowa Hills Software. Per the site's tag line, "The
and digital filter design programs on this site are free. This
web site, and the programs on it, are a retired RF engineer's winter
time hobby." If your primary interest is in calculating theoretical
values for filters and not being able to simulate "real world" effects
of component geometry and materials, packaging, and circuit boards,
then it would be hard to find a more comprehensive program for investigating
the potential for filter designs. However, the software goes beyond
presenting only the canonical form (basic)
of the circuits because, particularly for bandpass and bandstop
filters, it is often difficult or impossible to realize with actual
of Semiconductor Engineering, by Bo Lojek. This book provides
a unique account of the history of integrated circuit, the microelectronics
industry and the people involved in the development of transistor
and integrated circuit. In this richly illustrated account the author
argues that the group of inventors was much larger than originally
thought. This is a personal recollection providing the first comprehensive
behind-the-scenes account of the history of the integrated circuit.
so many things in life that we take for granted - aspirin, automatic
clothes washers, drill motors and bits, eyeglasses, rifles, bicycles,
transistors, to name a few - we rarely think about the effort that
went behind the end product that is now enjoyed. Even relatively
simple devices like scissors are the result of someone saying to
himself or herself, "Self, I need something to make cutting fabric
and paper and hair simpler and neater, so what might that thing
look like?" Then, after making a working prototype, improvements
are made based on empirical testing from usage, improvements are
made in the form factor, materials, size, etc., until evolution
results in what can be purchased today. If you have ever been in
a product design cycle, either privately or corporately, then you
know the process well. A concept as sophisticated as
developing television is much more involved than developing...
radio station operators seemed to always be amongst the first to
lose their rights in time of war. Governmental power brokers - from
unelected local bureaucrats on up to presidents - love to demonstrate
their influence over citizens when the opportunity arises. The
Radio Act of 1912 revoked the rights of amateur radio stations
to operate, and in some cases authorized the confiscation of radio
equipment for use by the government. Permission was not restored
until 1919, after World War I. Amateurs took it on the chin
again in World War II with revocation of licenses. In this
1917 article in The Electrical Experimenter publisher Hugo
Gernsback makes the case for permitting "our red-blooded boys be
trusted to assist our officials in running down spies" "...we realize
how absurd it is to close all privately owned radio stations during
the war," says he. It fell on deaf ears...
live the amateur, long live wireless!" - Opening sentence in
opening article in first edition of Hugo Gernsback's new
The Electrical Experimenter magazine
(May 1913). Gernsback was an indefatigable
pioneer electrical and electronics inventor, publisher of many electronics
magazines, and founder of the Wireless Association of America.
amplifiers (aka "mag amps") use a property
of saturated core inductors (saturable reactors)
to obtain signal amplification via a transformer-type plus diode-assisted
Magnetic amplifiers were preferred over vacuum tube amplifiers
in some circuits because they do not require a high bias voltage,
are generally smaller in size, are quite robust and are practically
immune to microphonics. Their biggest limitation is bandwidth. The
high number of turns in the core provides a lot of interwinding
capacitance so the self-resonant frequency is in the low megahertz
range. Additionally, the need for the magnetic amplifier reactor
to operate in a saturated condition further imposed a limit on the
frequency response. Even today, there are some critical applications
that exploit the fool-proof and ultra high reliability nature of
the magnetic amplifier. This article goes into the details of operation
both as amplifiers and as bistable multivibrators.
promised last week, 2014's first
RF & Microwave Crossword Puzzle is pretty big. With about
220 words that are all hand-selected to be technically oriented,
this is one of the bigger formats I use. Software does all the hard
word of making everything fit, but I design the grid and have built
the word-clue dictionary from scratch over the course of 10 years.
Your company's name might even appear one day.
Technology Innovation has published a new pamphlet detailing a line
of RF power
divider / combiners with operational frequencies ranging from
10 MHz through 2700 MHz and power handling as high as
20 W. Small sizes make them ideal for mobile communications
equipment applications. All feature low insertion loss, low VSWR,
high isolation, aluminum bodies, compact size. Specifications can
be customized for your application. SMA / N connector types are
an RF Cafe supporter since 2010, develops both turnkey and custom
solutions for the RF telecom equipment designers and manufacturers.
product line includes
high power couplers,
splitters / combiners and filters between 1 MHz and 3 GHz.
We have a tight relationship with a local, ISO certified manufacturer
with a 25 000 sq. ft. facility and more than 20 years experience
in the RF/microwave design and manufacture. This gives us the best
of both worlds, the agility of a small company and the production
capabilities of a larger-sized, high-volume manufacture.
Class-B push-pull amplifiers has not changed since 1960 when
this article appeared in Electronics World. The transistors
for making them have improved in most cases, but the design procedures
are basically the same. Class-B amplifiers, in case you are not
familiar with the topology, are able to amplify zero-referenced
sinusoidal signals throughout the full 360 degrees of rotation signals
without an offset voltage bias; they are constructed from two Class-A
amplifiers in a cascode configuration. Issues like crossover distortion
and thermal runaway are discussed in the amplifier design procedure.
Cafe visitor Steve G. just sent me a link to the
Gutenberg website where you can download copyright-free books
and other material on a broad range of subjects. The particular
page he sent me to is for books with "radio" in the subject. There
are currently more than 44,000 titles from which to choose, and
many of them are available in multiple file formats like HTML, Kindle,
EPUB, and Plucker. Although most date back quite a few decades,
there are more contemporary titles whose authors placed them in
the public domain for free, legal access. If you are a fan of the
Carl & Jerry adventure series from Popular Electronics,
then you might enjoy The Radio Boys and Astounding
Stories of Super Science. If you like historical books
on technology, maybe Project Trinity 1945-1946 would be
of interest; interestingly, the opening page of the book reads,
"Destroy this report when it is no longer..."
Model No. SDLVA-218-44-70M is a
Detector Log Video Amplifier (DLVA)
designed to operate over the 2.0 to 18.0 GHz frequency range.
This model offers a logging range of -40 to +4 dBm having a
log slope of 70 mV/dB. The logging linearity is better than
±0.75 dB and the rise time is 25 nsec maximum and the
fall time 300 nsec maximum. This model operates on ±15 VDC.
Synthesis (CMS) tool facilitates synthesis of N+2 coupling matrices
for Chebyshev bandpass filtering functions,
arbitrary finite-position transmission zeroes. Filter orders up
to 12, arbitrary placement of transmission zeroes, complex transmission
zeroes, extended parameter plotting options, S-parameter file (s2p)
generation, topology matrix definition of filter circuits &
do know that your E-ZPass™ is getting read all over town,
don't you? If you have one of the devices hanging from your sun
visor and think that the only thing tracking your location is the
tool booth plaza on the thruway, you might be in for a big surprise
once you build this E-ZHack
circuit for your E-ZPass™. As presented in the January 2014 edition,
this modification will sound an audible alarm when the circuit detects
that your E-ZPass™ is being read. Per the article, "E-ZPass™ is
a device that drivers can buy in 15 states to zip through tollbooths
across the country, usually without stopping. More than 24 million
tags - and growing - exist in the U.S. alone. Each 'listens' for
a wireless signal broadcast by an electronic reader. When that signal
is strong enough, a tag draws power from an onboard battery to broadcast
its serial number back to the reader. The reader then relays the
information to a computer server to bill the customer linked to
the tag. Unbeknownst to most E-ZPass™ users...
blog entry by Linx Technologies' Aaron Croslow provides a good introduction
to the world's various satellite navigation systems in operation
and/or in planning and/or building stages. The U.S. activated our
Global Positioning System back in the early 1990s as the world's
first such constellation of satellites. Since then, Russia deployed
its GLONASS system, the EU is on the verge of launching Galileo,
and China is working on its BeiDou Satellite Navigation System
(BDS - aka Compass). Linx, as with
many GPS receiver manufacturers, is in the process of providing
modules that work well with multiple systems.
is an RF and microwave connector, cable, cable assembly and passive
components - fixed attenuators, matching pads, dividers / combiners,
feedthrough & high power terminations, dipole antennas - manufacturer.
Synergies and large stock keep lead times to a minimum and allow
us to offer customers an unparalleled flexibility. Innovation is
pivotal and we are constantly developing new products.
quiz is based on the information presented in
Make Your Own Tube Testers and Electron Tube Equipment,
by Gary Steinbaugh. With more than 30 years of RF engineering experience
and Ham radio involvement, Gary has a very broad and deep proficiency
in electronics. His new book, Make Your Own Tube Testers and
Electron Tube Equipment, is a great assimilation of his personal
knowledge and includes some of the highest quality line drawings
and photographs of any technical book I have ever seen - and I've
seen a lot of them! The preface section is also unique in nature,
followed by a short history of and basic circuit design principles
for vacuum tubes. Gary also conceived of and built a 3-dimensional
physical model of the plate, transfer, and constant current characteristic
curves for a typical vacuum tube (6SN7); you've never seen...