Microwave Corporation (AMC) uses a state-of-the-art clean room to
manufacture all of it's products, as well as a fully automated machine
shop. AMC is a leader in the design and manufacturing of
DC to 40 GHz solid state control components for commercial
and military grades. Products include PIN diode switches, PIN diode
attenuators, detector log video amps (DLVAs), tunnel diode amps,
wideband detectors, power dividers & couplers, and bias "Ts."
to the Transistor Museum website, "The Philco
Surface Barrier Transistor (SBT)
was the 'hottest' transistor around until the late 1950s. This device
performed very well at high frequencies and was used extensively
in radio and computer circuits. Hobbyists were delighted to find
such an inexpensive high frequency device... [Edwin] Bohr authored
many well-remembered transistor construction projects in the 1950s/60s."
Many of Bohr's construction articles featuring SBTs were published
in Radio Electronics magazine, and this was one of them
from 1957. The manufacturing process is described where jet streams
of an electrolyte were shot at both sides of the germanium crystal
to etch it as required - Neanderthal in nature compared to today's...
visit RFIC Solutions in appreciation of their helping to deliver
RF Cafe. RFIC Solutions offers
RFIC/MMIC, Analog, Mixed-Signal,
Digital IC and module, RF system design services, RF prototype board
development and RF testing up to 60 GHz. The RFIC team of 40+
staff, mostly engineers has delivered more than 30 million RF ICs
for Wireless LAN, Cordless & Cellular Phone & wireless apps.
The RFIC team has extensive RF industry knowledge with many years
of background in designing and deploying Wireless Systems.
Microwave Corporation, the world class supplier of complete MMIC
based solutions for communication & military markets, has announced
a new GaAs pHEMT MMIC power amplifier and an analog variable gain
amplifier that are ideal for Ka-band VSAT, high capacity microwave
radio and radar systems in the 27.5 to 31 GHz frequency
range. The HMC7441 is a three-stage
GaAs pHEMT Power Amplifier which operates between 27.5 and 31 GHz.
The amplifier provides 23 dB of gain and +34 dBm
of saturated output power at 25% PAE from a 6 V supply
and output IP3 of +38 dBm.
Enterprises is searching for a talented
Copywriter with RF/Microwave knowledge and industry experience
to develop and maintain an extensive range of information for the
Company. Writing projects will be varied and challenging including
the development of content for the Company’s website landing pages,
product descriptions, marketing-related emails, press releases and
news pages as well as copy for technical reference materials such
as white papers and glossaries. Our successful candidate will become
an integral part of our professional team of RF engineers and marketers.
This position requires strong technical and product knowledge...
Headquarters Allied Powers Europe" - is that a cool sounding title
or what? As an aficionado of World War II movies and paraphernalia,
such terms bring to mind a consortium of countries and countrymen
desperately working and sacrificing together to fend off ruthless
aggressors to preserve their cherished ways of life. The North Atlantic
Treaty Organization (NATO) was formed
in 1949, just a few years after the end of WWII in order to formalize
an agreement to basically cover each other's butts. To attack any
one member was to attack all members, thereby reducing the chance
of onslaught. Part of the strategy included developing and implementing
what would be the most
extensive radio communications in existence at the time. Because
of the great distances that needed to be covered, both over-the-horizon
tropospheric forward scatter and line-of-sight radio relay links
Microwave Corporation, the world class supplier of complete MMIC
based solutions for communication & military markets, announced
a new Gallium Nitride (GaN) MMIC power
amplifier product which offers significant performance, size and
durability advantages for communications, test instrumentation and
radar systems operating in the 6 to 18 GHz frequency range. The
HMC7149 is a 10 W GaN MMIC Power Amplifier which operates
between 6 and 18 GHz. The amplifier typically provides 20 dB
of small signal gain, +40 dBm of saturated output power.
Electronics has published its November 2013 newsletter. As always,
it includes both company news and some tidbits about relevant industry
events, regulations, and standards. This month Sam Benzacar offers
his takes on the subjects of analog
filters, legacy products, reverse microwaves, high-tech feature
Computational Sciences has been supporting RF Cafe since 2008.
ACS designs, develops and sells
Design Automation (EDA) software
tools for RF and microwave engineering applications. ACS's main
product is the
LINC2 linear circuit simulator and RF Tools products.
Visual System Architect provides a block diagram level
system simulator, and AMP Pro simplifies amplifier
design. Bundles on multiple packages are available. All products
run under Windows.
watches stopped being a sign of nerd chic a long time ago. If your
wrist has been crying out for a device that declares to the world,
"I am a hopeless technophile... and proud of it!," then this
might be just the fashion statement revolution you have been waiting
for. For a $99 pledge, you can receive one of the first prototype
as part of Gabriel Anzziani's Kickstarter project
(hurry - only one left as of this writing).
Per the website, "The Oscilloscope Watch has all the features of
a modern watch (time, calendar, alarm, etc...)
combined with all the features of the popular
Xprotolab (Oscilloscope, Waveform Generator,
Logic Analyzer, Protocol Sniffer, Frequency Counter). The
$60k goal has been met and exceeded. Its open source code...
has been helping deliver RF Cafe since 2009. "Test Equipment Connection
Corporation is your single source
test & measurement solution. We offer over 300 test equipment
manufacturers including Agilent, Tektronix, Anritsu, Rohde &
Schwarz, Advantest and Fluke, plus thousands of new, used, 2nd hand,
and refurbished test equipment products. We buy and sell bench top,
general-purpose test and measurement equipment. $2,000,000
is budgeted each month for the purchase of surplus equipment."
1957, only a top-of-the-line automobile deserved a radio containing
13 discrete transistors and four crystal diodes. Only buyers of
such a top-of-the-line vehicle could afford the luxury offered by
an electronic marvel that promised instant-on music with superior
sensitivity and selectivity over the vacuum tube models that lesser
Delco's Model 7268085 was up to the task as it populated the
dashboards of Cadillac's Eldorado Brougham. Modern day radios use
a single IC (e.g., NXP SAA7706H) for
performing all reception, filtering, amplification, and tuning functions,
with superior performance compared to the Delco without all the
interstage tuning transformers, Rs, Ls, and Cs. Most of the rest
of the circuitry in your car radio is for microprocessor control
of the user interface and that single RFIC.
Corporation, the innovation leader in high-frequency EDA Software,
will be exhibiting in Booth A505 at the 2013 Microwave Workshops
and Exhibition from November 27 to 29 in Yokohama, Japan. Software
demonstrations of the AWR Design Environment™ will inform and educate
attendees about key features and applications. AWR will participate
MWE Workshop #08 on Verification of Accuracy for Electromagnetic
Simulators for Canonical Problems on November 28th. AWR will present
"Introduction to Analyst, AWR's 3D FEM EM Simulator," on November
has been helping to deliver RF Cafe since 2008. Linx Technologies'
remote controls, evaluation kits and master development systems
feature straightforward hardware configuration and clear documentation,
making it simple for engineers and hobbyists to integrate wireless
features without the hassle and expense of engineering RF functionality
from scratch. We also offer design services including board layout
assistance, programming, certification advice and packaging design.
just added Twitter and LinkedIn buttons to
RF Cafe in the horizontal bar underneath
the top menu area. By clicking on them, you activate your account
and can automatically send the page URL to your followers. If possible,
I would appreciate your trying one or both buttons to make sure
they are working properly. For some reason they do not seem to be
incrementing even though I have sent out multiple Tweets and LinkedIn
messages when new items are posted on the homepage
(like this one). Each web page is supposed
to have its own unique, independent set of counters, so maybe also
try at least one page other than the homepage. Thanks for your help!
is another of the
Electronic Sticklers challenges from Popular Electronics
Electronic Sticklers). These are fairly basic circuit
analysis problems that often can be solved by inspection, but sometimes
a pencil and paper are necessary. Re-drawing the circuit in a different
configuration to make the connections more obvious often helps when
solving total resistance, capacitance, inductance, etc., as in question
#1. In this case, though, you need to be able to recognize a common
configuration to be able to simplify the circuit; otherwise, you'll
be writing and solving mesh equations. #2 has a simple answer and
a more elaborate possibility. #3 and #4 are simple inspection problems.
are if you are reading this, you don't really need
Electronics for Dummies. However, Christmas is coming and
you might considering picking up a copy to gift to a tech-challenged
friend or boss, or maybe to a relative, that always gets the tell-tale
deer-in-the-headlights stare whenever you start explaining what
you do for a living or hobby. The "for Dummies" series is well-known
for helping to make complex concepts understandable for laymen.
Test, Inc. is a leading dealer of new and reconditioned
test and measurement
equipment. We buy, sell, rent, lease, repair and calibrate all
types of general purpose test and measurement equipment. BRL Test
is your one stop source for over fifty different manufacturers and
thousands of different models – specializing in Agilent, HP, Tektronix,
Fluke, Anritsu, and Rohde & Schwarz. All equipment is calibrated
per order at an ISO9001:2000 Registered and A2LA Accredited facility
(Z-540 & 17025), so you have the
added reassurance you are receiving high quality equipment ready
to work right out of the box.
there were CFL light bulbs with complicated electronic circuits
for generating the requisite high voltages without a transformer,
there were just the familiar straight fluorescent bulbs that use
a simple ballast arrangement and a built-in switch in the bulb base.
As with compact fluorescent (CFL) lights,
very few people understood how they worked. Most knew that the 8-foot-long
T-12 bulbs made a really cool implosion sound when they broke -
usually intentionally (by people like me)
since the glass tubes were amazingly tough. I remember many moons
ago, between high school and the time I enlisted in the USAF, while
I was an apprentice electrician working on a renovation job at a
public school, a co-gofer and I spent weeks wiring fluorescent fixtures
all throughout the building. We worked atop a tall scaffolding that
was on wheels, pulling ourselves around the room by grabbing the
suspended ceiling grid. When the foreman wasn't around, we relieved
our utter boredom...
Model No. TD-30T-SHS-218-2G4G-PECL is a high speed, LVPECL logic
threshold detector designed to operate from 2.0 to 18.0 GHz,
but optimized for 2.0 to 4.0 GHz. This detector has a propagation
delay of 15 ns max and has a LVPECL output.±15 Vdc
supply, SMA connectors.
A lot of time can be wasted when performing Internet searches. With
tens of thousands of pages likely containing at least some reference
to whatever it is you are looking for, drilling down into data to
retrieve relevant web pages can be difficult or impossible. Fortunately,
if you know about a few handy
special search formats,
you can increase your likelihood of success greatly. Here are a
few I use quite often. Search terms are not case sensitive, but
note that the OR operator is. You may combine any or all of these
special operators as long as the syntax rules are followed. If you
don't want to remember all the special search formats, simply type
in "advanced search" to get a search page with all these options
implemented. BTW, one of the best tricks I've discovered...
eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month - November
11th, at 11:00 am - that is when the armistice
(cease fire) began in 1918, unofficially
ending World War I. This Veteran's Day tribute is by Canadian
citizen Terry Kelly. It was written after an experience he had on
Veterans Day in 1999. Terry went blind at an early age, but has
excelled as an athlete and a musician. "A
Pittance of Time" is done in the finest Celtic tradition.
now, there are about a thousand satellites operating in space. Of
those, just two were designed to be serviced in orbit: the Hubble
Space Telescope and the International Space Station." -
Benjamin Reed, PM of NASA's Satellite Servicing Capabilities
Office, regarding work in progress to built automated robotic satellite
service platforms for repair and refueling satellites not originally
designed to be serviced.
Coast Guard Office of Contract Operations intends to award a non-competitive
sole source purchase order to Rohde & Schwarz, for
PR-100 portable receivers (with options)
GX430 digital decoding software (with
options). The statutory authority permitting Other than Full
and Open Competition is 10 U.S.C. 2304(c)(1) as implemented by FAR
6.302-1, Only One Responsible Source and No Other Supplies or Services
Will Satisfy Agency Requirements. Together, the products can be
used for capture, analysis, classification, demodulation and decoding
of digital and analog IF signals.
1985, Apex Wireless has offered
engineering, and design services focusing on high-performance,
cost-optimized products that employ wireless RF transmitters, receivers,
and transceivers. To complement our RF design expertise, we work
with local experts in DSP, ultra low power design, packaging, certification,
and manufacturing. Apex Wireless handles the complete design and
production cycle, or any part of it - electrical, mechanical, packaging,
sourcing, certification, and management.
N2YO website provides real-time mappings of many satellites, including
the ESA's Gravity
Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer
(GOCE) platform, which, as I write
this, is deciding whose front lawn to fall onto. The only thing
about the satellite's destiny known for certain is that sometime
between Sunday afternoon and Monday morning, it will come plunging
to Earth in a fiery re-entry, hopefully burning up into small enough
chunks to not cause any damage on the ground. If you or anyone you
know is hit by a piece of the debris, take comfort in knowing that
you can probably sue your country's government for damages. "Basically,
governments are responsible for their own spacecraft," explained...
RF Engineering crossword puzzle is a bit larger than normal,
so you'll need to budget a little more time in the corporate reading
room to complete it. As usual, only words related to engineering,
science, mathematics, physics, etc., are used. If you want to de-throne
those folks in management and sale of a know-it-all attitude for
being able to complete the 'other' crosswords that use movie star
and fashion designer names, leave a copy of this puzzle in a strategic
location in the men's and women's resting areas.
Electric is a name most RF Cafe visitors are probably familiar
with as being the maker of high quality analog multimeters, with
the Simpson 260 line being the most famous
(it is still manufactured today). Not as many people, however,
know that Simpson also used to make
oscilloscopes. This article from Popular Electronics was written
by a Simpson Electric engineer whose job was, in part, to respond
to questions asked by users. It covers basic operations like how
to calibrate the display, adjust
the horizontal time base and vertical amplitude scales, and
how to synchronize the display with the input signal. Some explanation
of how to interpret periodic and pulse type waveforms is provided
as well as tips on how to avoid overloading and possibly...
Corporation, the innovation leader in high-frequency EDA Software,
is co-hosting with CST and National Instruments a complimentary
high-frequency design, simulation, and test workshops in Brazil
and Argentina this month. The workshop brings to South American
designers hands-on insight into the world of simulation for RF and
microwave circuits and systems as well as 3D electromagnetic analysis
using AWR and CST software. Attendees will also be introduced to
the National Instruments’ PXI platform for RF measurements.
Electronics has released new designs for a 800-2500 MHz 10 dB
directional coupler, a 728 to 734 MHz cavity bandpass filter,
and a 1710 to 1785 MHz/1805 to 1880 MHz cavity duplexer,
and a 2412 MHz cavity bandpass filter for Wi-Fi Hotspots. All
can be ordered directly through their
AMCrf web store.
once a month I scan the Internet for useful articles on career news
and tips. Here are a few new ones.
5 Branding Mistakes You
Didn't Know You Were
Demand for Engineering
Jobs Grows in 2013
"Onshoring" Firms for Visa
5 Job Search Tips for
Corporate Recruiters Insist
There Really Is a STEM
Tips to Use LinkedIn
Effectively for Job Hunting
10 Job Search Tips for
How's the Engineering Job
Market? Depends on Whom
Fornetti personally provided the copy of
Conquer Radio Frequency that was used to create this quiz,
and has authorized me to include it in the monthly Book Drawing.
His video to the right provides a great introduction to the book
and to the very well-done set of instructional videos featured on
the included DVD. AWR's Microwave Office software is used throughout
the tutorials. A live, narrated, step-by-step process is fully captured
on-screen so you see how to create the circuit schematic, set up
the component parameters for simulation and optimization, specify
graph and table types and how to designation input files, configure
input stimulus, and how to interpret the results of the simulation.
It is an excellent way to familiarize yourself with where to find
everything in MWO's menu and toolbar structure...
oscillators (ECOs) were a real
breakthrough in achieving frequency stability in harsh environments
that included mechanical vibration, temperature excursions, power
supply variations, and load changes. Use of vacuum tubes made the
task even more challenging. Such oscillators were necessarily very
expensive compared to less sophisticated designs. Henry E. Rice
Jr., W9YZH, introduced his "Rice Variarm" model
(aka the Millen Model 90700) at a breakthrough
price of just $29.50, which in 2013 money equates to $469.89 per
the U.S. BLS
Inflation Calculator. That is a lot of moola for amateur radio
operators even today. The arm sticking out of the case is for adjusting
typical new car today generates 15 gigabytes
of information per hour - a number that's climbing as sensors proliferate.
A little back-of-the-napkin figuring suggests that 250 million such
vehicles would produce around 2000 exabytes
(0.002 yottabyte) per year, most of
which never leave the car. But that's changing." So said Frank Markus
in the September 2013 edition of Motor Trend magazine. His article
titled, "You Car's Contribution
to the 'Big Data' Cloud," does a nice job in explaining the
immense amount of digital data generated by a new car's computer
system. The numbers include everything from tire pressure sensors
sending metrics via Bluetooth to fuel injection and entertainment
systems. Smart headlights, auto-dimming rear view mirrors, self-parking
algorithms and gesture sensing make it easy to believe the numbers.
Coming soon to a vehicle near you is a personal health vital signs...
late 1950s and early 1960s were the dawn of the Space Age, beginning
unofficially with the launch of Sputnik. Popular Electronics
put a lot of effort into educating the public on advances in
space electronics, including not just the spaceborne platforms,
but also ground tracking and communicating equipment. Much hardware
was launched into orbit in the early years without giving much thought
to the hazards or space debris. Failures in the form of explosions
scattered chunks widely, but fortunately most were low enough to
have their orbits degrade and re-enter the atmosphere. One interesting
tidbit reported in this article that I didn't know was that the
TV camera lens on the TIROS 2 weather satellite was defocused
during launch (due to positional shifting
from vibration and G forces, I suppose) and crippled the
image quality severely.
Solutions today announced that HTC and Samsung are ramping
SkyOne™, a highly customizable, fully optimized front-end solution,
in several of their recent smartphone launches. The SkyOne™
platform, which integrates all RF and analog content between the
transceiver and antenna, reduces complexity, size and time-to-market
for customers with demanding architectures for advanced mobile applications.
Utilizing Skyworks’ full technology portfolio and advanced multichip
module capabilities including proprietary shielding and packaging,
SkyOne™ is the world’s first semiconductor device to condense multiband
power amplifiers and high throw switches along with all associated
filtering, duplexing and control functionality into a single, ultra-compact
test engineer Joe Cahak, owner of Sunshine Design Engineering Services,
recently had a
photovoltaic panel system installed on his southern California
home. After much research and running through return on investment
(RoI) calculations, he made the decision
to invest in a state-of-the-art system by Semper Solaris in San
Diego. If you have not looked into modern PV technology, you might
be surprised - as was I - to learn that rather than all the panels
feeding their DC outputs into a common AC inverter that handles
phasing issues with the street service, instead each panel has its
own inverter and phase matching circuit so everything simply feeds
into a 2-pole circuit breaker. Doing so eliminates single point
failures and allows graceful degradation if necessary rather than
taking down the entire system. Joe has provided a very nicely done
write-up on the system and its installation.
project is underway by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
(DARPA) to provide a real-time map
of where over-the-air broadcasts are occurring. The idea is to create
a Google Maps type graphical interface where a network of 'sensors'
that includes special purpose and otherwise deployed devices will
report to a central data collection point to provide situational
awareness for where and when (and by whom
in some cases) specific frequencies are being occupied. Proposals
are being accepted for companies wanting to contribute to the program,
so this might be a great opportunity for makers of software defined
radios (SDR) to build functionality
into systems for accommodating such detection and reporting...
Technologies announces its launch of the high performance, low cost
RM Global Positioning System receiver modules. Using the built-in
MediaTek MT3337 chipset, The RM module can simultaneously acquire
on 66 channels and track on up to 22 channels, providing standard
NMEA data messages through a UART interface. A simple serial command
set can be used to configure optional features. The RM receiver
module is a cost-effective GPS solution. It offers no-frills, basic
operation in a compact 15 mm by 13 mm package.
this is not a phone or GPS device. It is a handheld digital oscilloscope
(DSO) with a 1 MHz bandwidth, 2.8" color LCD, max sample rate
of 1 Msps with 12 bits of resolution, and a USB interface
(not needed for operation). For a mere
$70 you get the
DSO201 and a test probe. For $162 you can get a 4-channel version
with a 72 MHz analog bandwidth. Here is a
YouTube video demonstrating both o-scopes' capabilities.
mail did not start out as we know it today, whereby anyone with
access to an Internet-connected device can compose and send a typed
message to a similarly equipped receiver. The first electronic mail
message was sent (and received) on
November 1, 1960, between post offices in Washington, D.C., and
Chicago, Illinois. This article from Popular Electronics
takes you on a step-by-step tour of how the
Speed Mail system worked, including its dedicated shortwave
radio links between participating cities. Great care was taken in
an attempt to assure message confidentiality by having the letter
opened and scanned automatically inside a sealed machine on the
transmit end and then printed and placed in a sealed envelope on
the receive end. Knowing what we know now about government snooping,
you have to wonder if a copy of each message was routed...
RF Cafe visitor sent me a link to an article showing how most of
what we buy at a grocery store is under the auspices of a mere
16 conglomerates. It is amazing - and scary - just how much
corporate consolidation has occurred in the last couple decades.
News reports mention all the bankruptcies, buyouts, and mergers
throughout each year, but unless you are paying attention to such
matters, it is easy to not notice what is happening. Did you know,
for instance, that Pepsico owns and therefore controls among other
companies Kentucky Fried Chicken and Pizza Hut, Aunt Jemima and
Cap'n Crunch, Doritos and Ruffles, Dole and even - believe it or
not - Pepsi. Proctor & Gamble owns Mr. Clean and Bounty, Tide
and Ivory, Cover Girl and Olay, Charmin and Old Spice. Kraft controls
Ritz and Planters, Jell-O and Cool Whip, Dr. Pepper and Sunkist,
Certs and Chiclets, Oscar Meyer and Honey Maid. The list goes on
opportunity is open to either new EE/EET electronics graduates,
experienced RF / wireless technicians with 1 year min experience
seeking a full or part time job, or current EE/EET students seeking
a paid internship or a part time / co-op job. The
RF test and general engineering technician will work primarily
in product test where RF amplifiers are tested and tuned prior to
shipment. No experience is necessary and all training will be provided,
however, it is necessary that the applicant be proficient in basic
electrical concepts and circuits. In addition to RF test the job
involves assisting design engineering with parts purchases, light
electronic assembly (prototyping) and
engineering documentation and database update tasks.
our inception in 1996 in Korea, ISOTEC has been a leading manufacturer
of RF and
Microwave Connectors such as SMA, MCX, SSMB, etc., and RF Components
such as Attenuators, Terminations, etc., for wireless service providers,
etc. We provide recognized and trusted products and service to our
customers in more than 30 countries worldwide. ISOTEC offers also
an extensive product mix with RF Filters and Multiplexers etc. ISOTEC
is ISO9000 and ISO14000 certified factory.
of us have heard tell of people sticking a penny in a
fuse holder slot in an old fuse panel when either a replacement
fuse is not available or when the correct amperage fuse keeps blowing.
Neither reason is acceptable under any conditions, but the latter
reason to avoid replacing a fuse that keeps blowing is especially
stupid. Fuses blow and circuit breakers trip usually because something
is wrong and needs attention. This installation of EDN's
"Tales from the Cube" feature shows how truly stupid people can
thwart virtually any measure of safety when it comes to electricity.
is born a genius, but the process of living de-geniuses them." "I'm
not a genius. I'm just a tremendous bundle of experience."
- R. Buckminster
appeared in the November 2013 edition of
The Good Life,
a local newspaper of northern Michigan. Each monthly edition is
chock full of not just news and advertisements, but also scores
of jokes and riddles. "Okay, I'm five-foot-three and pleasingly
plump. Recently, after I had a minor accident, my mother accompanied
me to the emergency room. The ER nurse asked for my height and weight,
and I responded in a serious tone, 'Five-foot-eight, 125 pounds.'
While the nurse pondered this information, my mother...
riddle: How do the guys in a close-knit group of technology refer
to each other?
Sunday I create a
crossword puzzle using a word list that I personally created
and added to during over a decade of making puzzles. All of the
words are related to engineering, science, mathematics, chemistry,
astronomy, etc. There are no numbnut clues about movie stars or
clothing designers. Enjoy.
heard of 'Litz' wire, right? It's the twisted bundle of multiple
enamel or otherwise coated wire used for making couplers, antennas,
and at frequencies up to about a couple MHz. Congratulations,
but did you know the full name for it is 'Litzendraht?'
Neither did I until after reading this article. 'Litzendraht' is
the German word meaning 'braided wire' or 'woven wire.' Litz by
itself means braided or woven. So, technically if you call it Litzendraht
wire, you are being redundant since it is the same as saying woven
wire wire. That might save you some embarrassment one day if you
happen to be working around a German techie. Litzendraht is used
in order to exploit the skin effect at high frequencies where the
majority of the current is conducted on the wire's surface. Using
multiple insulated wires enables greater current carrying capability
than an equivalent diameter single solid wire. While dispensing
trivia, note also the use of the term 'B. & S.' gauge for wire...