These archive pages are provided in order to make it easier for you to find items that you remember seeing on the
RF Cafe homepage. Of course probably the easiest way to find anything on the website is to use the Google Search box
at the top of every page
you don't mind having your circuits in the public domain, then
is a very nice FREE, online SPICE type circuit simulator with a
professional quality user interface and output graph function. CircuitLab
handles analog, digital, and mixed-mode simulations with DC, AC,
swept time domain and frequency responses. After signing up for
an account, you have access to a large number of user-generated
circuits that are available for use as-is or for modifying to meet
your particular needs. You can use CircuitLab without creating an
account, but then you will not be able to save or recall your circuits.
A large library of pre-defined
components are available, and standard SPICE expressions can also
Anatech Electronics Intros 4 New Filters
Electronics has published its May 2013 newsletter. As always, it
includes both company news and some tidbits about relevant industry
events, regulations, and standards. This month highlights a
1524 to 1560 MHz | 1626.5 to 1660.5 MHz cavity duplexer, a 55
MHz highpass filter, a 806 to 894 MHz/902 to 960 MHz cavity duplexer,
and a 1515 MHz lowpass filter. Anatech Electronics' Sam Benzacar
invites you to visit them in booth #2710 at the IMS 2013 trade show
in Seattle, Washington.
RF Cafe Poll Started 5/15/2013
take a moment and vote in this poll. No sign-in-required. Results
are displayed automatically. Thanks! See current.
Z-Comm's Ultra Wideband VCO Tunes from 2.7
to 5.4 GHz
operates from 2700 to 5400 MHz with a tuning voltage range
of 0-24 Vdc. This octave tuning VCO features a typical phase
noise of -107 dBc/Hz @ 100 kHz offset and an average tuning
sensitivity of 140 MHz/V. The V600ME31-LF is ideal for satellite
communication applications. It is designed to deliver a typical
output power of 7 dBm into a 50 ohm load while operating
from a 5 Vdc supply and drawing only 25 mA. It is designed
to operate over the industrial temperature range of -40 to 85ºC
while suppressing the second harmonic to better than -20 dBc.
Amateur Radio Quiz: Vintage Radios - Such
Ward Silver, N0AX, created the newest Amateur Radio Quiz titled
Radios - Such a Bargain!" N0AX says, "Who can resist taking
a long look at the
veterans sitting along the aisles of the flea markets? Hey,
I'm talking about the radios, not the attendees! 'Big iron' is making
its comeback with Johnsons and
and Swans shoulder-to-shoulder at the hamfests. Before you test
your lumbar regions by lugging one home, you might want to exercise
your antique assessment skills first!"
Please Visit Z-Comm in Appreciation of Their
is a world leader in the design and development of surface mount
VCO (voltage-controlled oscillator) modules & PLL (phase-locked
loop) frequency synthesizers for the commercial microwave/RF wireless
market. RoHS compliant signal source products currently range from
40 MHz to 13.5 GHz bands. PLLs available in integer, fractional-N
and single frequency models.
Watch 32 Metronomes Synchronize with Each
If you place those
32 metronomes on a rigid surface, they will continue to run
out of synchrony forever. If instead you place them on a moveable
platform, it will begin
side to side with increasing amplitude until the discordant
rebels finally comply. There is probably a social behavior parallel
somewhere, but the more important principle at work is the likening
the system (metronomes + moveable platform) to a resonant circuit
with feedback. Surely someone reading this can supply an equation
for us that models the phenomenon.
Featured Book (please help support RF Cafe)
of RF, Microwave, and Millimeter-Wave Components, by Sergey
M. Smolskiy, Leonid A. Belov, and Victor N. Kochemasov. This unique
and comprehensive resource offers you a detailed treatment of the
operations principles, key parameters, and specific characteristics
of active and passive
microwave, and millimeter-wave components. The book covers both
linear and nonlinear components that are used in a wide range of
application areas, from communications and information sciences,
to avionics, space, and military engineering. This practical book
presents descriptions and clear examples and of the best materials
and products used in the field, including laminates, prepregs, substrates;
microstrip, coaxial and waveguide transmission lines; fixed and
rotating connectors; matching and adjusting elements; frequency
filters; phase shifters; and ferrite gates and circulators.
A New Direction for AMC and PMI
Sicotte, Chairman and CEO of
American Microwave Corporation(AMC),
and Ashok Gorwara , Chairman and President & CEO of
Industries, Incorporated (PMI),
wish to announce that they have completed realignment and separation
of AMC and PMI. Mr. Sicotte and Mr. Gorwara were formally colleagues
at MIT Lincoln Laboratory in the late 1960's. Each is very
well recognized for his extensive expertise in the microwave electronics
field and industry. Each Company has developed its own complete
manufacturing, engineering, research & development capabilities
and facilities as the individual companies have grown and prospered...
PMI Intros 30 MHz to 18 GHz Broadband
Amplifier Model PEC-38-30M18G-12-SFF is a
broadband, low noise amplifier that operates over the 30 MHz
to 18 GHz frequency range. This model provides 38 dB of
gain and has a gain flatness of ±2.0 dB maximum. The noise
figure is 5dB maximum and the OP1dB is +12 dBm minimum. This
amplifier maintains a maximum VSWR of 2.2:1 into a 50 ohm impedance.
The operating voltage is +12 VDC and the current is 300 mA
Kete Microwave Intros New Line of Isolators &
Microwave Company announces a kind of new product: Microstrip
circulators, provide frequency range from 5.2-40 GHz
with full band. These devices have
dual junction circulators as well. These parts are made of golden leads,
ferrite material and thin film technology. They are stable
performance with good quality. To find more information, or
to purchase these products, please you visit the links
from Kete Microwave's website.
Please Welcome RFIC Solutions as Our Newest
RFIC Solutions offers
IC and module, RF system design services, RF prototype board
development and RF testing up to 60 GHz. The RFIC team of 40+
staff, mostly engineers has delivered more than 30 million RF ICs
for Wireless LAN, Cordless & Cellular Phone & wireless apps.
The RFIC team has extensive RF industry knowledge with many years
of background in designing and deploying Wireless Systems. RFIC
has a strong background in designing wide range of products from
RF amplifiers, Switch to complex Mixed-Signal SoC like 'RF CMOS
Transceiver' & and other ICs up to 60 GHz. Click here to
download our Company Profile.
1948 was a mere two and a half years after the end of World War II,
so military planners strategized about what a future war, if one
occurred, would look like. Two implements that had a huge effect
on the previous efforts were the atom bomb and the
guided missile; therefore, they were prominent in discussions.
Germany's use of the V-1 Buzz Bomb is a familiar example of a guided
missile that struck terror in the hearts of populations that experienced
its devastating destructive power. The U.S. developed a few missiles
of its own, particularly immediately after WWII when it had the
assistance of Werner von Braun and other notable rocket scientists
who worked for the U.S. space effort after the war. A few of the
missiles are on display today at the
Udvar-Hazy center of the National Air and Space Museum.
Thanks to Dong Jin Technology for Continued
a premier manufacturer of RF connectors, cable assemblies and components,
Dong Jin TI is highly recognized an
leader in Korea. Our premium products offer a competitive price,
on-time delivery and best quality in the industry. Attenuators,
arresters, adaptors, bias tees, filters, terminations, directional
couplers, and power combiners and dividers, are among Dong Jin TI's
Agile Microwave Technology Added to Vendor
Microwave Technology, Hicksville, NY. Agile MwT's motto says,
"This company may be new, but we're not newcomers to the high reliability
RF/Microwave industry." The three founders have more than 100 years
of combined experience. Agile MwT specializes in
limiters, switches, and multipliers. "Our goal is to cut product
cost by more than 50% by keeping our overhead low, by staying small
and focusing on innovative designs which are inspired by the commercial
wireless market. Our goal is to provide same or better performance,
size and quality at a much lower cost through better engineering
and outsourcing to U.S. based contract manufacturers."
tried everything from seed oils to high-temperature lubricant to
glycerin in search of the right liquid. It's the closest I've ever
felt to Thomas Edison when he was looking for the perfect element"
Dave Horn, Switch Lighting CTO, regarding the liquid silicone
cooling used in their 'game-changing' LED light bulb.
If You Appreciate Fine Watchmaking...
probably a safe assumption that most electrical engineers and technicians
high precision mechanical
creations. Gizmodo has an article that highlights some incredible
wearable timepieces (aka watches).
As author Andrew Liszewski puts it, "Gadget nuts have
CES, kids at heart get
Toy Fair, video gamers
have E3, but if it's watches
that ring your bell, every spring you'll want to head over to Basel,
Switzerland for Baselworld. It's where the world's
masters gather to unveil their latest timekeeping works of art.
And these are the most wonderful of this year's whole bunch. "
RF Engineering Crossword Puzzle for May
Sunday I create a
crossword puzzle using a word list that I personally created
and added to during over a decade of making puzzles. All of the
words are related to engineering, science, mathematics, chemistry,
astronomy, etc. There are no numbnut clues about movie stars or
clothing designers. Enjoy.
The Antenna Research Laboratory
1950, say the author of this story, "No longer are 'aerials' merely
required to transfer electromagnetic energy into space," in reference
to airborne platforms. Following great advancements in radio and
radar technology during World War II, great interest lied in
what would later become referred to as 'stealth' technology and
in secure communications. The transition of aircraft speeds into
the realm of supersonic also mandated that projections beyond the
main airframe outline be either eliminated or very much minimized.
long cable aerials that stretched from the cockpit area to the
tip of the vertical fin, and the
round direction finding antennas hanging from below could not
be accommodated at airspeeds above about 300 knots. The aerodynamic
drag would be excessive and the forces would tear the antennas apart.
Douglas Aircraft set up one of the first antenna measurement laboratories
specifically to address those issues both for airborne and shipboard
1st Radar Images of D-Day Invasion
occurred on June 6, 1944. It was the day that Allied forces stormed
the French coastline with overwhelming numbers of battleships, landing
craft, bombers, fighters, and personnel. It broke the German stronghold
on mainland Europe and marked the beginning of the end of Hitler's
dominion. These photos are the first official releases of
radar imagery before and during the
D-Day invasion at Normandy. Pre-invasion reconnaissance radar
plots show a sparsely populated coastline and English Channel. White
areas that indicate radar targets were concentrated mainly in city
regions. On the day of the invasion, white returns nearly saturate
the displays due to the incredible presence of all the aforementioned
war machine elements. Even the soldiers' presence contributed to
the return because of all the metallic hardware being carried -
guns, ammo, radios, helmets, bayonets, canteens, etc...
Please Welcome Asian Circuits as Our Newest
Circuits, with its HQ in Toronto, Canada, and production facilities
in China, has emerged as a well known turn-key
service provider for mid- and high-volume
electronic contract manufacturing. Asian Circuits is well known
for providing economical one-stop PCB assembly services, including
PCB fabrication, sourcing of components, and complete. Our online
PCB assembly quote generator can help you estimate the assembly
cost of your PCB project from the very beginning.
PMI Intros 2 to 18 GHz Flat Gain Low Noise
PBB-20-218-16-LCA is a 2.0 to 18.0 GHz Low Noise Amplifier
which provides 20 dB of gain while maintaining a gain flatness
of ±2.0 dB maximum over the operating frequency. The noise
figure is 4 dB typical and offers a typical OP1dB of +14 dBm
minimum. The amplifier requires +12 to +15 VDC and the current
draw is 150 mA typical.
Custom-Cal Listing Added
experts routinely repair sophisticated and expensive instruments,
often providing the flexibility to defer capital investments in
retooling and new equipment. We specialize in optical, RF and communications
test equipment repair, often considered too complex by other independent
NuWaves Intros Bidirectional RF Power Amplifier
NuWaves Engineering announces the release of the NuPower Xtender
bidirectional L- & S-band power amplifier module, model
number NW-BSSPA-10W-1.0-2.5. The product is the first in the company’s
new Xtender series of bidirectional power amplifiers, which are
based on the successful NuPower broadband, high-efficiency, miniature
PA modules. Designed for use with half-duplex RF transceivers running
constant-envelope waveforms, the new bidirectional PA provides a
minimum of 10 Watts peak RF output power and 40 dB of gain
with 30% average power efficiency from 1000 to 2500 MHz.
Is Stratovision the Answer?
sounds about as serious as 'Wonkavision,' but unlike the candy maker's
fictional machine that transported chocolate bars across the room,
Stratovision was in fact a serious proposal. It was an early
form of satellite television. Since orbiting communications satellites
would not be practical for another decade, Westinghouse devised
a system in 1945 using aircraft flying at high altitude to relay
television signals. Engineers calculated that 14 airplanes circling
at 25,000 feet could provide coverage to 78% of the country. By
1950 they had a working system, but needless to say (because nobody
has ever heard of it... except you, now), the concept ultimately
did not pan out. It was not because the system failed to work as
designed, but because there was not enough demand for coast-to-coast
broadcasts at the time.
Glowing Trees a Problem for Astronomers
controversy brews over the merits of breeding plants that glow like
a lightning bug. Proponents say
glowing trees could eventually replace electric street lights,
thereby reducing pollution created by generating stations. Opponents
say messing around with tree genes is dangerous and should be disallowed
since it could lead to unanticipated environmental ramifications
on both plant and animal species. The unique aspect of this effort
is that it is being pursued primarily by genetic hobbyists rather
than corporations - at least for now. There is bound to be a huge
financial potential for such a copyrighted line of plants. My opposition
to the concept is primarily a concern for light pollution projected
skyward. Astronomers have a difficult enough time with ever-encroaching
sources of ambient light, but a planet overrun by cross-bred and
mutated glowing plants (and possibly animals), especially if they
are capable of emitting levels high enough to replace street lights,
would effectively blind billions of dollars of investments in telescopes...
Featured Book: Please Support RF Cafe
to Modern EW Systems, by Andrea De Martino. Master the
warfare (EW) techniques and technologies related to on-board
military platforms with this authoritative resource. You gain expert
design guidance on technologies and equipment used to detect and
identify emitter threats, giving you an advantage in the never-ending
chess game between sensor guided weapons and EW systems. This unique
book offers you deeper insight into EW systems principles of operation
and their mathematical descriptions, arming you with better knowledge
for your specific design applications.
communications and their communicators have always been held
in high regard. Operating and maintaining sophisticated electronics
equipment is difficult enough on solid ground, but doing it on the
ocean with winds and waves tossing the platform (ship) relentlessly
can exacerbate the problem tremendously. It is a wonder that radar
systems can even be useful with the antenna constantly rotating
about pitch, roll, and yaw axes while simultaneously shifting in
the x, y and z axes. Sure, airborne platforms have the same sort
of challenge, but their perturbations are not typically as violent,
as great in magnitude, or as prolonged as a naval vessel in rough
seas. For the record, I'm a former USAF radar guy so I'm not just
trying to glorify my own branch of service. This article from Radio &
Television news gives some insight into the life a naval communicator
during the 1950s.
RF Cafe Poll Started 5/7/2013
take a moment and vote in this poll. No sign-in-required. Results
are displayed automatically. Thanks! See current.
Please Visit Colby Instruments in Appreciation
Instruments designs and manufactures the world’s finest high-precision
Delay Line (PDL) instruments and modules. All instruments are
fully programmable via GPIB interface, and are suitable for use
in high frequency RF signal applications as phase shifters or where
an extremely high precision and accurate amount of delay is required.
125 Femtosecond steps have been achieved in some products!
Introduction to Professional Wireless Communications
Bensky, author of
Short-Range Wireless Communication(and ironically the book selected by
April's book drawing
winner), is the presenter in this online introductory
level 1-day course (May 15, 9:00am -
4:30pm EDT) for individuals interested in an overview of
wireless telecommunications. "This course may be used as introductory
training for students pursuing IEEE's WCET professional certification.
It is also ideal for anyone who wants a more firm grasp on what
the technology in the products they are selling is, the fundamentals
of what it can do and what wireless communications professionals
on the engineering front are working on developing for future applications."
Thanks to ISOTEC for Renewing Their Support
our inception in 1996 in Korea, ISOTEC has been a leading manufacturer
of RF and
microwave connectors such as SMA, MCX, SSMB, etc., and RF components
such as attenuators, terminations, etc., for wireless service providers,
etc. We provide recognized and trusted products and service to our
customers in more than 30 countries worldwide. ISOTEC offers also
an extensive product mix with RF filters and multiplexers etc."
CEI's Electronics Slide Rule Advertisement
wasn't until February 1 1972, that Hewlett-Packard introduced the
HP-35 electronic calculator. Before that, when you spoke of an electronics
calculator it referred to a computer (likely a vacuum tube type),
a human who specialized in electronics calculations, or this special
slide rule sold by Cleveland Electronics Institute - the
515-T. It had special scales for calculating reactance, and
resonance, and had common circuit analysis formulas printed on the
Working Hard or Hardly Working?
someone has greeted you with the trite line, "Working hard or hardly
working?" It used to be funny enough. Chances are you are working
hard, but nowadays the likelihood that someone is
hardly working is
growing greater every day. The real unemployment rate (U6)
in the U.S. is around 14% per the
BLS website. About half the population pays no income taxes
(yet receives the most benefits), and
a huge number of people are receiving food stamps. My county of
Erie, PA, is at 19% (find
your area's rate here). Have you seen the stories of
SNAP abuse? Probably not if all you watch is mainstream news.
Immigration Reform(a misnomer)
is about to exacerbate the problem. A smaller portion of us are
pulling the wagon while more are piling in for the good ride. We
have become the United States of Greece (apologies
to hard-working Greeks).
Sherlock Ohms: The Case of the Lucky Touch
both a technician and, after earning a
BSEE degree, an
engineer, I have done a lot of circuit troubleshooting in my life,
so I really like reading the short accounts of other people's experiences
in tracking down and solving problems. The Sherlock Ohms series
from Design News is a great source of such stories. This one is
Power of Human Touch." I once had a very similar episode.
Many Thanks to everything RF for Supporting
RF is a search engine for
microwave components. everything RF lists complete catalogs
from various RF & microwave component manufacturers and enables
engineers to search through them by specification. There are
over 60,000 components listed from more than 150 Manufacturers. Download
datasheets, request quotes or contact the suppliers for more information
via everything RF.
Industries designs and manufactures a wide range of attenuators,
RF Switches, Power Dividers, Test Accessories and systems within
an ISO 9001:2008 certified quality system. These products meet
or exceed the requirements of the most demanding applications. All
JFW products are designed to the most exacting standards to provide
innovative, high quality and cost effective solutions in a wide
variety of global applications. JFW offers custom designs
at catalog prices, fast delivery and no NREs!
Inc. magazine published a few statistics relating to trends
in employee hiring based on
polling of employers. The upshot is that personal networking
through current employees has greatly supplanted job websites and
headhunters for finding quality employees. Here are a few of the
numbers from hiring companies:
- 50% of have abandoned job boards.
- 98% use LinkedIn, 42% Twitter, 33% Facebook.
- 7% of applicants come from referrals but
account for 40% of hires. - 47% 3-year
retention of employee referrals, but
only 14% from job boards. - $1,200 average referral
bonus to employees
Wireless Engineering Crossword Puzzle
a break from the drudgery by trying your hand at some of these goodies.
Every word in the
RF Cafe crossword puzzles is specifically related to engineering,
mathematics, and science. There are no generic backfill words like
many other puzzles give you, so you'll never see a clue asking for
the name of a movie star or a mountain on the Russia-China border.
Blu-ray Laser Bursts 100 Black Balloons
an old Blu-ray player from which you can cannibalize the laser unit?
Scott Stevenson did, and use used it produce this video. Blu-ray
players use a 405 nm (more violet
than blue - see thumbnail) laser diode that emits a 580 nm
beam at around 5 mW. I'm guessing black balloons are used because
they absorb more of the light energy and therefore heat faster.
A debate on the YouTube page argues between melting or air heating
causing the balloon to burst. My money is on local melting since
it would take a long time to heat the air inside enough to expand
enough to cause the popping.
Asian Circuits Added to PCB Vendor Listings
Circuits is a reliable mid to high volume electronic contract manufacturer
(ECM) and provider of printed circuit board (PCB)
with surface-mount (SMT), through-hole (THT) and mix components.
Headquarters is located in Toronto, Canada, and production plants
in Shenzhen, China. Workforce is totally committed to providing
clients with excellent service and quality products at a reasonable
Please Visit ISOTEC in Appreciation
of Their Support
you know that ISOTEC stands for Iso Technology Corporation? "Since
our inception in 1996 in Korea, ISOTEC has been a leading manufacturer
of RF and
microwave connectors such as SMA, MCX, SSMB, and RF components
such as attenuators, filters, multiplexers, and terminations, for
wireless service providers." ISOTEC provides recognized and trusted
products and services to customers in more than 30 countries worldwide.
Q-par Angus Limited is Acquired by Solid
Angus Limited has been acquired 1st May 2013, by Solid State plc,
an AIM listed supplier of industrial / ruggedised computers, specialist
electronic components and battery power solutions to the electronics
market. Q-par, will now be known as
Steatite Q-par Antennas, and will remain as one of Europe’s
leading microwave engineering experts specialising in the design
and manufacture of ultra-wideband antennas, subsystems, antenna
components and consultancy.
Many Thanks to Test Equipment Connection!
Equipment Connection Corporation is your single source
test & measurement solution. "We offer over 300 test equipment
manufacturers including Agilent, Tektronix, Anritsu, Rohde &
Schwarz, Advantest and Fluke, plus thousands of New, Used, Second
Hand, and Refurbished test equipment products. We buy and sell bench
top, general-purpose test and measurement equipment. $2,000,000
is budgeted each month for the purchase of surplus equipment."
PMI Intros 0.5 to 18 GHz Positive Gain Slope LNA
PE2-1020-R518-12-SFF is a low noise amplifier that offers a
positive gain slope versus frequency. This type of amplifier is
useful when trying to equalize frequency flatness over a broad bandwidth.
This model provides 10 dB of gain at 500 MHz and 20 dB
of gain at 18 GHz. The noise figure is 10 dB at 500 MHz
and 9 dB at 18 GHz. The OP1dB is +14 dBm minimum
and the maximum VSWR is 2.5:1.
A Few Job-Related Headlines
Fridays I usually comb the Web for relevant news stories related
to engineers and technicians. Here are a few you might find interesting.
IEEE RFIC Symposium 2013 Next Month in Seattle,
Bird registration with reduced prices ends on May 6 (Monday). From
the brochure: "The
RFIC Symposium brings focus to the technical accomplishments
in the area of integrated RF circuits, systems, and devices. This
year's exciting technical program will showcase the latest innovations
with sessions that cover a broad spectrum of topics such as cellular
and wireless-connectivity system ICs, low power transceivers, reconfigurable
and digital RF, broadband wireless communications, silicon millimeter-wave
ICs, power amplifier technology, and RF device modeling and characterization."
Electronics Geography Quiz
just doesn't seem all that long ago, buy holy moly that was going
on half a century! This
quiz appeared in Popular Electronics to test the hobbyist's
knowledge of the whereabouts of some of the major components and
products companies. Many of the businesses have gone defunct, been
bought and absorbed by other companies, or if they do still exist,
are in new locations. It will take a real old-timer to score well
on this quiz without resorting to lucky guesses. Still, there are
a couple stalwart manufacturers today that even a newcomer can get
right. Good luck.
Tales from the Cube: Debugging with a Laser
from the Cube is an occasional feature published by EDN. It
is akin to Sherlock Ohms in that readers submit the stories. PETA
members with a religious level of fervor might want to avoid reading
this one titled,
Debugging with a Laser. I'm not ashamed to admit that given
the same opportunity, I might have done the same sort of thing.
Here is an especially good line from the story: "An office joke
was that 'L.A.S.E.R.'
stood for Latest Angle to Secure Expensive Resources."
Engineering the Integrated Communications
a follow-on to the "Planning Integrated Signal Communications" story,
this article is the next step in the U.S. Army Signal Corps' implementation
ubiquitous communications systems. Along with powerful transmitters
and super-sensitive receivers at command communications hubs are
the many hand-held, back-pack, and vehicular radios needed to complete
strategic and tactical operations across the face of the Earth.
It wasn't just wireless systems that Signal Corps engineers and
technicians were responsible for, but also all the wired equipment
and interconnecting cabling. The possibility of software configuration
for network switches, radios, modems, telephones, antennas, and
ancillary components had never been thought of in 1950 (by very
few, anyway). Everything was set up with patch panels, jumpers,
and hard-wired connections. That's not to say modern communications...
Solutions, Inc. has introduced a surface mount limiter diode for
receiver protection applications. The
CLA4608-085LF is a low capacitance silicon PIN limiter diode
designed for high power applications ranging from 10 MHz to
over 6 GHz. Maximum resistance at 10 mA is 1.2 Ω
and maximum capacitance at 38 V is 0.65 pF.
Planning Integrated Signal Communications
U.S. Army's Signal Corps was set up to "exercise supervision
over signal communications literally from the Pentagon to the foxhole."
Created in 1860 at the suggestion of a military doctor, the Signal
Corps originally used a system of flag waving for messaging dubbed
'wigwag' and graduated to overseeing the nationwide telegraph network
six years later. By 1870, members were tasked with establishing
and operating a weather forecasting service, so in 1907 when they
created an aeronautical division it was just in time for facilitating
the nation's rapidly growing cadre of aircraft pioneers (recall
the Wright brothers had flown four years earlier at Kitty Hawk)
by providing en route weather information. Having already mastered
the state of the art that was radio and telephone by 1937...
World's Tiniest Video by IBM "A Boy and
from IBM have produced the world's smallest movie, made by a stop-action
photography type method. 242 individual still frames created and
acquired by an in-house scanning tunneling microscope were used
to create "A
Boy and His Atom." Guinness World Records has certified it as
a record-setter (although I cannot find it on their website yet).
From the IBM press release: "A Boy and His Atom" depicts a character
named Atom who befriends a single atom and goes on a playful journey
that includes dancing, playing catch and bouncing on a trampoline.
Set to a playful musical track, the movie represents a unique way
to convey science outside the research community. 'Capturing, positioning
and shaping atoms to create an original motion picture on the atomic-level...
AWR Kicks off ADF 2013 This July in Asia
Corporation, the innovation leader in high-frequency EDA software,
today announced the start of its
Forum 2013 tour with a diverse schedule of dates and venues
in the Asia Pacific region starting this summer. ADF is an
open event at which designers of microwave and RF circuits and systems
such as MMIC, RF PCB, and LTE can network and share useful information
and resources pertinent to high-frequency design, discuss AWR products.
Time to Buy a New Book?
to Antenna Analysis Using EM Simulators, by Hiroaki Kogure,
Yoshie Kogure, and James C. Rautio. Written for novice engineers
and engineering students, this easy-to-comprehend resource offers
readers thorough introductory-level treatment of
antenna analysis using electromagnetic
(EM) simulators. This richly-illustrated book shows how to use EM
software to analyze and tune wireless antennas to meet specific
requirements. Readers learn important wireless antenna design terminology
and gain a detailed understanding of how antennas work. Moreover,
the book offers guidance in troubleshooting problems with wireless
antenna designs. This authoritative reference also provides a complete
overview of the many different kinds of antennas and related EM
tools. DVD is included! This title contains Sonnet electromagnetics
analysis software, featuring example files that are described and
illustrated in the book.
Sherlock Ohms: Car Radio Fires up Check
Ohms' mysteries are submitted by their readers. They tell stories
of electronics posers and how the e-sleuths solve them. I only link
to ones that RF Cafe visitors might enjoy. This installment
proves that the old adage "ground
is ground the world around" is only valid when it has a good
More than 10,000 searchable pages indexed.
Your RF Cafe Progenitor & Webmaster
single-handedly redefining what an engineering website should be.