Technologies has published a white paper titled, "The
FCC Certification Process: Going Wireless." Author Justin Hopper
writes, "The FCC certification process for products with wireless
features can be complicated and daunting. Increasingly, customers
are expecting wireless features, yet many manufacturers hesitate
because of the uncertainty of the certification process. This article
discusses the FCC certification process for the United States and
shows that it is not as bad as it may seem. Other countries have
different processes and procedures, but that is beyond the scope
of this article...<continued>
" This article is one of the first entries in
Test Equipment Rentals (ATEC), supplier
of complete testing solutions for EMC applications in military/defense,
telecommunication, commercial CE, aerospace and automotive markets,
today announced it has been awarded
ISO/IEC 17025-2005 &
ANSI/NCSL Z540-1-1994 accreditation for calibration by the American
Association for Laboratory Accreditation (A2LA).
Accreditation to ISO/IEC 17025 is obtained through an assessment
of a laboratory’s compliance in carrying out specific tests and
calibrations precisely to the scope of accreditation.
in the 1960s, Robert Balin created many quizzes on various electronics
topics for Popular Electronics magazine. I have already
posted a couple dozen of them. Here is the latest one on the subject
Units of Measure commonly found in electronics work. I missed
the one for the tape deck, but then I don't ever remember concerning
myself with the electrical and magnetic characteristics of tape
Czech Technical University (CTU) in
Prague challenges its graduate engineering students to master the
basic design of microwave circuits and subsystems and become familiar
with the concepts of active and passive microwave and millimeter
wave circuit designs. CTU uses AWR’s
Microwave Office circuit design software and AXIEM EM simulation
software extensively in both coursework and research because it
is fast to learn and easy to use, enabling students to successfully
master the complex concepts of high-frequency design.
Test Equipment Rentals has signed on to help deliver RF Cafe to
you through paid advertising. ATER provides the latest models of
test and measurement
equipment from top name manufacturers like Agilent, Fluke, Anritsu,
R&S, Tektronix, and Yokogawa. Our primary focus is providing
a complete rental solution of test and measurement equipment to
industries such as Aerospace, Defense, EMC, and Communications.
suppose the term "Subminiature" as it applies to electronics components
is as relative as the word "Modern" is in book titles. They might
be accurate at the time of the writing, but passage of time renders
them ambiguous. Subminiature in 1957 meant anything other than full-size
vacuum tubes, huge power transformers, multi-layer wafer switches,
and hookup wire larger than AWG 20. The advent of
peanut tubes, very early versions of transistors and solid state
diodes, and ever-higher operational frequencies permitted component
sizes to be shrunk by a factor of two or more. Rather than using
a pistol-style soldering gun or a soldering iron designed for assembling
copper guttering, a precision pencil-type iron could be used and
greasy tools from the garage no longer sufficed for turning screws
and nuts. A lot of the material in this article is still useful
for hobbyists and even electronics professionals in the lab.
so the Radar Tech Hall of Fame is an RF Cafe creation, but the USAF
hasn't done it and the world deserves one. Our newest inductee is
MSgt. Floyd Hinkson,
ret. Floyd had quite an extensive career working on primarily mobile
radar systems including the MPN-1, MPN-11, MPN-13, MPN-14, and TPN-19.
I'd say he's probably one of foremost authorities on tube-based
mobile radars (although the TPN-19 is solid-state). Floyd encourages
his fellow radar techs to get in touch. If you send me an
e-mail, I'll forward it to him.
announces a new RoHS compliant VCO model
CRO1320A-LF for the SATCOM market. The CRO1320A-LF is designed
to cover 1320 MHz with a tuning voltage range of 0.5 to 4.5 Vdc.
This single frequency, high performance VCO has been optimized to
feature extremely low phase noise of -120 dBc/Hz @ 10 kHz
offset while operating off a 5 Vdc supply and typically drawing
only 29 mA of current. Output power of 3±3 dBm into a
50 Ω load while operating over the extended commercial temperature
range of -40 to 85ºC.
Microwave is a leader in technically differentiated electronic and
and isolators that connect, protect and control critical systems
for the global microwave electronics market place including commercial
and military wireless telecommunications. Dedicated to R&D of
standard and custom design quality ferrite circulators and isolators
from 380 MHz to 23.6 GHz.
Electronics is a leading turn-key PCB assembly manufacturer in the
EMS Industry offering one-stop
PCB assembly services
including PCB fabrication, parts procurement and final circuit board
assembly. Expertise in DFM (Design for Manufacturing)
checking for your every order. Ideal service for PCB prototyping
and low / high volume production runs.
Microwave Corporation is pleased to announce the release of the
Hittite’s 2013 Product Selection Guide summarizing over 1100
products including 22 new products. New for this publication are
GaN PAs, an I/Q downconverter and sub-harmonic MMIC mixers. The
Selection Guide is organized by RF & microwave, analog &
mixed signal, clocks & timing and LO frequency generation IC
sections along with modules and instrumentation. Hittite's 2013
Off-the-Shelf Newsletter includes 17 new product highlights &
articles and company news organized by market application.
Television News ran a two-part article on the state of the
art of computers in the late 1950s. It had only been since ENIAC's
(Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer)
debut in 1946 at Massachusetts Institute of Technology
(MIT) that the public
(or science community for that matter)
was getting used to regularly hearing about computers in the news.
By 1957 there were many companies popping up with
electronic computer offerings. Originally the exclusive purview
of university research labs and defense installations, the size
and cost of computers was moving into the realm of affordability
by corporations that used them for accounting and bookkeeping, and
in some cases even rented idle time to outside users. Desktop PCs
and notebook computers were still the realm of crazy dreamers.
Remington Rand "Univac" (UNIVersal
Automatic Computer) computer was delivered on March 31,
1951. Its main memory consisted of liquid mercury delay lines arranged
in 1000 words of 12 alphanumeric characters each. A Univac famously
calculated the first presidential race forecast - Eisenhower vs.
Stevenson - and was correct! This 1957 report mentions how "giant
electronic computers no longer rank as laboratory curiosities or
frightening science-fiction robots." The Unisys company is today's
descendant of Remington Rand.
Matrix Synthesis (CMS) tool facilitates
synthesis of N+2 coupling matrices for Chebyshev bandpass filtering
functions, with arbitrary finite-position transmission zeroes. Filter
orders up to 12, arbitrary placement of complex transmission zeroes,
S-parameter file (s2p) generation,
dvanced graph and marker functions, much more.
warfare is emerging as the new war fighting paradigm of the U.S.
and many of its allies. This book is the first in the field to address
electronic warfare (EW) systems
in the context of information warfare. Authored by a recognized
leading authority, the book includes a unique formulation of EW
system performance and presents results of system simulations that
have not appeared previously in any related literature. Essential
EW engineers and researchers working in defense, aerospace,
and military capacities, the book explores the properties of information,
the properties of information communication means, information theory,
and EW system architectures.
is the latest set of job-related
articles referenced from the IEEE's The Institute newsletter
that seem to be worthwhile... IMHO, anyway.
When Business Conduct
Might Be Business
For Consultants, Social
Conference Focuses on
Peter Johnson: From Janitor
to NASA Engineer
Civil Aeronautics Administration (CAA),
born in 1940 and now known as the Federal Aviation Administration
(since 1958), was established originally
to regulate the burgeoning commercial airline and cargo transport
air traffic as well as the private aviation activity. According
to an FAA document, on April 3, 1947, CAA controllers began in-service
evaluations of the ground approach control
(GCA) radar system at Washington National and Chicago Municipal
airports. It was commissioned for officially use by the CAA on January
7, 1952, at Washington National Airport. This story from a 1957
edition of Radio & Television News reports on the system
long-range radars that would permit, eventually, continuous
coverage across the entire USA.
RF Systems invites you to visit them at their booth
(#206) at the
in Denver, Colorado, from August 5 - 9.
Technik Industries, Inc. of Clearwater, Florida has purchased
Nova Microwave of Morgan Hill, California. Nova Microwave designs
and manufactures RF/Microwave isolators and circulators for both
commercial and defense applications. With almost 20 years of
experience in the microwave business, Nova Microwave offers a number
of different styles from drop-ins to surface mounts. The frequency
ranges from 380 MHz to 23.6 GHz with average power ratings
from 2 to 250 watts.
is a supplier of custom-made thin metal parts. Chemical etching,
metal stamping, RF
shielding, or any custom part made out of metal. RF/EMI shielding,
metal stamping, lead frames, filter screens. Samples are available.
has said in many newspapers and over his signature that it would
be possible to transmit the human voice across the Atlantic before
many years. Based on these absurd and deliberately misleading statements,
the misguided public... has been persuaded to purchase stock in
his company." - U.S. District Attorney, prosecuting Lee de Forest
for fraud in 1913.
a break and work this week's
microwave engineering themed crossword puzzle. All the words
are pulled from a hand-built list of terms, names, and abbreviations
that have only to do with science, mathematics, and engineering.
If you want a crossword with names of movie stars and obscure countries,
try the local newspaper. If you want to exercise your nerd knowledge,
this is the one for you.
Corp. is the leading designer and manufacturer of
RF Shielding and EMI/RFI Isolation Products for printed circuit
boards and electronic enclosures. Orbel also specializes in thin
Photo Etched Metal Parts and
Precision Metal Stampings made from a wide variety of material
July 3, 2013, the EAA AirVenture Museum flew a
Ford Trimotor (aka "Tin Goose")
into Erie International Airport, and offered rides for $75 per seat.
Normally, rides in vintage aircraft cost much more than $75, so
Melanie and I jumped at the chance. We got about a 16-minute ride
out to Presque Isle and around Presque Isle Bay. The experience
of flying in an aircraft with three radial engines was definitely
worth the investment, especially since it was a cool day, winds
were light, and the visibility was unlimited with a little haze.
Even with finely balanced propellers and 9-cylinder radial engines,
the vibration level was very notable. Unless you are an airplane
lover who responds to such stimulation the way a newborn baby responds
to its mother's heartbeat, I can understand how hours-long flights
might have been a bit wearisome...
Microwave announced four new GaN MMIC power amplifier products which
offer significant performance, size and durability advantages for
communications, test instrumentation and radar systems operating
in the 2 to 20 GHz frequency range. The
HMC1086F10 is a 25 W GaN MMIC PA which operates at 2-6 GHz.
It typically provides 23 dB of small signal gain, +44 dBm
saturated output power, and delivers +46 dBm output IP3 at
+33 dBm. The
HMC1087F10 is an 8 W GaN PA which operates at 2-20 GHz.
It typically provides 11 dB of small signal gain, +39 dBm of
saturated output power, and +43 dBm output IP3 at +28 dBm.
are a few useful job hunting (and keeping)
tips from around the web.
2013 Engineering Jobs
Is a 2-Page Resume
How to Achieve Likeability
Can I Turn Down an Offer
I've Already Accepted?
How to Think Like a Leader,
by Jack Welsh
Ignore These 10 Outdated
Job-Search Advice Tips
5 Ways to Better Position
Yourself For a Pay Raise
What to Include in a
announces a new dielectric resonator VCO model
DRO12600A for the test and measurement market. The DRO12600A
is designed to cover 12600 MHz with a tuning voltage range
of 0 to 12 Vdc. This unmatched VCO has been optimized to feature
extremely low phase noise of -102 dBc/Hz @ 10 kHz offset
while operating off a 5 Vdc supply and typically drawing only
23 mA of current. The low noise DRO12600A is designed to deliver
a typical output power of 0±3 dBm into a 50 Ω load.
looked over out broad range of cavity, ceramic, LC, and SAW filters,
duplexers, triplexers, and
combiners recently? If you do, you’ll find new models and a
greater range of models than ever before.
visiting RF Cafe (other than by accident)
almost certainly knows of Drs. Bardeen, Brattain and Shockley fame
for their transistor invention while jointly working at the Bell
Telephone Laboratories. The trio shared
The Nobel Prize in Physics in 1956. Bell was so proud of their
employees' efforts that they ran full page advertisements to boast
of the accomplishment. This one appeared in the February 1957 edition
of Radio & Television News. Alas, Ma Bell's moment of glory
was a bit diminished by needing to add a footnote admitting that
Drs. Bardeen and Shockley no longer work there.
has announced the following fully-funded engineering positions in
FMS Systems Engineer Lead
Launched in July 2012 as a spin-off company of L-3 Communications,
Engility possesses more than 40 years of combined experience across
nearly 70 different legacy companies.
you read or hear news stories about the total amount of taxes you
pay, the number can seem unreasonably high until you account for
payroll (federal, state, local), standard point-of-sale (state,
local), special PoS (cigarette, gas, appliance disposal), utilities
(electric, phone, heating fuel, water), and multitudinous other
hidden taxes. Per CNN today: "Your wireless carrier isn't the only
one pocketing money when you pay your
bill. Local, state and federal governments, 911 systems and
even school districts tack on taxes and surcharges to your wireless
bill that end up costing American cell phone customers an extra
17.2%, on average, according to the Tax Foundation. That's up from
16.3% fifteen months ago."
VidaRF, the phrase "Providing Simple Solutions for Complex Connections"
is more than just a slogan – it’s a mindset, a mission, and a driving
force behind everything we do. Our pledge is to design and distribute
high performance, cost effective RF
and Microwave products to fit each customer's unique applications.
Attenuators, cable assemblies, connectors & adapters, isolators,
circulators, couplers, and power dividers are among our offerings.
to Radar Systems, by Merrill Skolnik. Since the publication
of the second edition of "Introduction to Radar Systems," there
has been continual development of new radar capabilities and continual
improvements to the technology and practice of radar. This growth
has necessitated the addition and updating of the following topics
for the third edition: digital technology, automatic detection and
tracking, Doppler technology,
radar, and target recognition. The topic coverage is one of
the great strengths of the text. In addition to a thorough revision
of topics, and deletion of obsolete material, the author has added
end-of-chapter problems to enhance the "teachability" of this classic
book in the classroom, as well as for self-study for practicing
rarely look at website server statistics for
because my focus is on providing useful content and not trying to
devise clever schemes to trick or coerce visitors into clicking
on ads. Adding significant material on a daily basis since 1999
has resulted in prominent page rankings and search engine positions
for many relevent keywords and phrases. My philosophy is to provide
you with as little annoyance as possible while also creating a venue
where companies will pay me to present their goods and services.
An unwillingness to curb my content and comments to satisfy some
peoples' ideas of correctness has undoubtedly cost me visitors and
advertisers, but c'est la vie. I am always a bit dubious about what
data are included in the numbers and charts presented by many websites,
so I never make absolute claims for any statistic. A popular tactic
is to include numbers that include every item requested from the
server with each page view, which includes images and any files
loaded into an inline frame. Here are a few charts for June 2013,
in case you care. Notable points are the pronounced dips in page
views during weekends and for some odd reason, the top search phrase
for June was "density of sand."
Linx Technologies 250 Series
RF transceiver module is designed for reliable bi-directional
transfer of digital data over distances of up to 4 miles. Operating
in the 902-928 MHz ISM frequency band, the module is capable
of generating +23.5 dBm into a 50-Ω load and achieves
a typical sensitivity of –105 dBm. This high output power gives
the module remarkable range and also helps overcome noisy environments
at shorter ranges. The module implements a Frequency Hopping SS
protocol with a UART serial interface that can be connected directly
to microcontrollers, RS-232, RS-485 converters or USB adaptors.
this article on component (resistor, capacitor,
and inductor) measurement was written, readily available,
inexpensive multimeters were not in existence. For about $20 you
can now buy a brand new handheld DMM that will make very accurate
resistance measurements and reasonably good capacitance measurements
at frequencies up to a few MHz, where lead inductance starts to
be significant (test frequency is usually
only a few kHz). Finding an affordable, accurate inductance
meter is another story. Cheap LCR meters can be purchased on eBay,
but don't be surprised if the quality is not very good. The most
component measurement method uses a frequency in the realm of
actual operation, and this article presents methods that will allow
you do do just that by using typical bench top instruments.
PS-500M2G-8B-SFF is a Stare-of-the-Art, 8-Bit Digitally Controlled
Phase Shifter that operates over the 500 MHz to 2.0 GHz
frequency range. This model has a typical insertion loss of
10dB and offers 360 degrees of phase shift via 8-Bit TTL control.
The phase shift error is less than ±10 degrees and the amplitude
error is less than ±1 dB. The switching speed is 500 nsec
take a moment and vote in this poll. No sign-in-required. Results
are displayed automatically. Thanks!
is actually a goofy video game that celebrates the whole
UFO/alien thing. I would like the 10 minutes of my life back that
I spent playing it through to the end. Per
Wikipedia, "On July 8, 1947, the Roswell Army Air Field public
information officer Walter Haut, issued a press release stating
that personnel from the field's 509th Operations Group had recovered
a 'flying disk', which had crashed on a ranch near Roswell." The
truth is out there.
you have any trouble sounding condescending, find a Unix user to
show you how it's done." - Scott Adams, Dilbert creator. I can remember
when that was true, but I'm not so sure it is anymore. A contemporary
example might be to find an Apple product user.
receivers are absolutely essential in
radio astronomy work. The need has driven major advances in
the state of the art of cryogenically cooled front ends with noise
temperatures near absolute zero. Antenna technology has also benefitted
from radio astronomy due to the need for precision steering and
narrow beam widths. Phased arrays (aka interferometers)
for interstellar targets requires that element spacing be large
enough to require separate antennas as the elements, which creates
a very large effective aperture, hence greater angular resolution.
Networks located continents apart are synchronized with the use
of atomic clocks to allow signal time of arrival and therefore phase
to be accurately measured. This story gives some of the early efforts.
is an international supplier of noise sources and test equipment.
Noise is their focus, and only business, so they can help yours.
NoiseWave provides their customers with high quality standard
and custom noise test solutions to meet commercial and
military wireless applications.
was founded by Engineers for Engineers. Amplical is a leading supplier
of quality RF microwave components. Utilizing the latest in RF Microwave
technology, Amplical focuses on premium quality
amplifiers and attenuators
at affordable prices. Amplifiers are tuned for exceptional amplitude
flatness and our attenuators are designed for precision and the
utmost in accuracy. Products are typically available from stock.
week I create a new custom
crossword puzzle that uses only personally selected words pertaining
to engineering, science, mathematics, aeronautics, metrology, chemistry,
tech companies and leaders, etc. There are no words or clues for
movie star names, sports heroes, or obscure villages in Timbuktu.
a given semiconductor compound, the maximum operational speed of
a transistor is governed pretty much by its gate thickness. Capacitance
and impurities along with lithography precision and accuracy are
the culprits. Shrinking gate sizes and growing crystals with greater
purity has driven operational speeds upward significantly over the
years. An equivalent set of issues plagued vacuum tube development
a century ago. The physical spacing of grid elements wrt each other
as well as to the cathode and plate placed an upper limit on amplification
bandwidth. As always, judicious study of the underlying causes led
to the development of new designs that, along with improved manufacturing
techniques, overcame existing barriers and, also as always, exposed
yet a new set of limiting criteria for conquering. That's the way
of science and engineering. This advertisement from a 1954 edition
of Radio & Television News featured breakthrough development
Western Electric of the 436A vacuum tube for tripling the number
of voice calls that could be sent over a single coaxial transmission
for dependable bi-directional transfer of digital data, the
25 Series RF transceiver module is capable of transmitting over
distances of up to 1 mile (1.6 km) line of sight. Operating
in the 902 to 928 MHz ISM (Industrial Scientific and Medical)
frequency band, the module is capable of generating +13 dBm
into a 50 ohm load and achieves an outstanding typical sensitivity
of –105 dBm. The 25 Series module implements a Frequency Hopping
Spread Spectrum (FHSS) protocol along with networking and assured
is a nice quiz on
calculating total equivalent capacitance for circuits containing
various combination of series, parallel, and series-parallel connections.
To help in calculation, all of the individual capacitor values are
the same. Many of them you can probably solve in your head, especially
if you mentally rearrange the circuit into a more readily recognizable
configuration. For instance, circuit #1 can be redrawn having two
parallel branches across the source. One branch has just a single
capacitor while the other has two parallel capacitors in series
with one capacitor. The equation is then C + (2C2/3C)
= C + 2/3C = 5/3C. For C = 6 pF, Ctotal
= 5/3*6 pF = 10 pF.
from the Cube is a regular feature run by EDN, in which readers
tell tales of interesting experiences in their engineering careers.
This particular story is very interesting and highlights why you
should never accept that a solution to a problem has been found
until you fully understand the initial cause. What's really scary
is that evidently this product and its 'cure' are probably still
doing active service in airplanes around the globe. It is hard to
believe that a QA department
would sign off on such a deal.
868 MHz NT Series RF transceiver module from Linx makes
it simple to send and receive digital data in the 863 to 870 MHz
band. The module offers the option of UART or True Transparency™
interfaces which lets the user create a wireless wire for use with
nonstandard data rates, custom protocols, or encodings such as PWM
and Manchester. The module features best-in-class receive sensitivity
(up to −113 dBm) and low power
consumption (only 19.2 mA in receive
mode and 16mA in transmit mode at 0 dBm).
has released Version 10.07, the latest update to its
V10 suite of high-frequency design software tools, inclusive
of Microwave Office®/Analog Office® circuit design software and
Visual System Simulator™ system design software, as well AXIEM®
3D planar EM software and Analyst™ 3D finite element method EM software.
Hundreds of enhancements, many of them user-requested features,
have been made to this latest release, including significant additions
to AWR's unique and powerful EM technologies.
LLC announces the availability of a wideband power amplifier operating
from 0.7 - 4.2 GHz. Their new
EPA-0742P1-SF uses the latest GaN technology to achieve a gain
of 46 dB and an exceptional gain flatness of ±1 dB.
This amplifier provides 30 dBm output power in a very small
package (6.49 x 2.87 x 1.89 inches).
Microwave is the world's largest manufacturer of
RF switches. They are AS9100 / ISO-9001 certified and
committed to providing unparalleled customer service, competitive
pricing, on-time delivery and switch products that are distinguished
by quality and reliability. Dow-Key offers the largest RF switch
product line in the world with over 10,000 unique configurations.
to RF Cafe visitor Niger S., of Herndon, Virginia, for winning the
June Book Drawing.
Handbook of RF, Microwave, and Millimeter-Wave Components.
Each month I select someone to receive a free book from those provided
by Artech House or Cambridge University Press. They are often books
I have used to create quizzes.
How to enter? Either buy one of my inexpensive
offerings or send me an e-mail.
I never really thought about the
transistor as a crystal amplifier, but in fact it was fabricated
from a crystal of germanium with two 'cat whisker' wires pressing
on its surface. Before the transistor was the simple rectifier made
of a crystal of selenium or even carborundum with a point contact.
Those were used for turning AC into DC and for detecting radio wave
modulation envelopes. For a really good synopsis of the early development
path of semiconductors, read this story from a 1968 edition of Popular
Electronics that commemorated the 20th anniversary of Bardeen, Shockley,
and Brattain announcing their transistor. Having been written much
closer to the days of discovery, the story has not been filtered
through as many writers' points of view, and contains some information
I'll bet you have never read before. E.g., did you know that semiconductor
dopants were originally referred to as adulterants? Did you know
that Shockley's early research was on field effect devices and,
if successful, would had made FETs the first forms of transistors
a recent IEEE Spectrum story titled, "Unclean
at Any Speed," Ozzie Zehner contends based on research that
electric cars don't solve the automobile's environmental problems.
After factoring in the big picture from beginning to end of production
of the vehicle, its battery pack, and the charger, the inefficiencies
of electric power production and distribution, and battery change-out
and disposal, even reaching break-even is questionable. Mr. Zehner,
BTW, is a convert from the
of true believers, having even built his own e-car decades ago
when doing so would more likely elicit strange looks than entranced
gazes of fawning approval. He changed sides after extensive research
suggested maybe the numbers were being manipulated in order to advance
an agenda. The impetus to "go green" with autos has more to do with
a need to feel good about one's self than reality. That said, I'd
gratefully accept a donation of a
Roadster any day.
of Reflector Antennas and Feed Systems Volume 3: Applications of
Reflectors, by Sudhakar Rao, Lotfollah Shafai, and Satish
K. Sharma. This is the first truly comprehensive and most up-to-date
handbook available on modern reflector antennas and feed sources
for diversified space and ground applications. There has never been
such an all-encompassing reflector handbook in print, and no currently
available title offers coverage of such recent research developments.
The Handbook consists of three volumes. Volume 3 focuses on the
range of reflector antenna applications, including space, terrestrial,
and radar. This book covers recent developments of reflector antennas
used for satellite communications, terrestrial communications, and
remote sensing applications.
you one of those people who say you don't mind the government collecting
data on you because you've done nothing wrong? This might change
your mind. German politician
Malte Spitz sued Deutsche Telekom for 6 months of
metadata that they collected from his cellphone usage. A programmer
used it to create a real-time, animated map of how the reporter's
movements were tracked within and between cities, how long he was
at each location, and with whom he was communicating. His phone-based
Internet surfing was logged. Anyone in Spitz's immediate vicinity
(supporters, business contacts, etc.)
would also be known. That was waaaay back in 2009; what do you think
Big Bro knows by now? Are you absolutely sure your history will
never be misinterpreted or - indulge the conspiracy theorist in
me - manipulated at the government's convenience?
Electro-Photonics offers a free TRL calculator. "TRL
(Thru, Reflect, Line) remains one of
the most popular alternative calibration methods for measuring non-coaxial
devices to the traditional short, open, load, and thru
(SOLT), two-port error correction calibration
calibration is based upon an 8-term error model and uses three
standards - thru connection, high reflectivity termination, and
a section of uniform line (λ/4 longer than
the thru line at the center frequency). The electrical length
of the line is determined during the calibration and does not need
to be known. The characteristic impedance, Z0 of the
delay line is the only critical parameter."
sleep that shuns my restless bed | Returns to haunt my desk instead."
- Frank R. Canning, July 8, 1950 Saturday Evening Post. Can
you relate to that?
from shortwave (SW) station
WYFR, based in Okeechobee, Florida, ended today, June 30, 2013,
after nearly 35 years of continuous operation. Prior to the advent
of the Internet, cellphone, and WiFi services, SW radios were the
only means of receiving information in the nether regions of the
earth where war and Communism denied people access to information
that might contradict the strict dictates of iron-fisted regimes.
As with so many other groundbreaking technologies of yesteryear,
shortwave broadcast stations are rapidly disappearing because costs
are prohibitive. If you click on the thumbnail above, you will see
many cool photos of the
WYFR station equipment room and antenna field that included
and 23 antennas directed toward various parts of the world. It's
kind of sad, but I had to laugh at this line from one article on
the sign-off, "Family Radio has been struggling ever since the world
did not end as predicted in 2011."