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Scientists Use Electron 'Ink' to Write on Graphene 'Paper'
This new technology could be a relatively simple and inexpensive method of creating permanent, high density records storage. Using an electron beam, the planar hexagonal carbon matrix of graphene (2-dimensional by definition) is disturbed and replaced by a 3D clump of carbon atoms that provide a discernable relief easily recognized as printing under a microscope. While the print could be similar to a normal printed page, it might be more useful to encode the information in some other form that will require decryption to read. Magnetic and optical digital storage media is notoriously non-permanent due to cold flow and migration of localized storage domains. This process eliminates that problem.