1789: Benjamin Franklin wrote a letter to Jean-Baptiste Leroy in which he said, "In this world nothing can be said to be certain, except death and taxes." 1851: World's first undersea telegraph cable went into operation, between Dover, England, and Calais, France. 1927: The first underwater tunnel, the Holland Tunnel, between New York and New Jersey, opened. 1946: Artificial snow from a natural cloud was produced for the first time over Mount Greylock, MA. 1971: U.S. spacecraft Mariner 9 became the first spacecraft to orbit another planet - Mars. 1979: Robert Jarvik was granted a patent in for an artificial heart. 1982: The Vietnam Veterans Memorial was dedicated in Washington, D.C. 1994: Sweden passed a referendum to join the European Union. 1999: Dr. John Stapp, who pioneered research in high acceleration effects on the human body, died.