RF Cafe Software

RF Cascade Workbook 2005 - RF Cafe
RF Cascade Workbook

Calculator Workbook
RF Workbench
Smith Chart™ for Visio
Smith Chart™ for Excel
RF & EE Symbols Word
RF Stencils for Visio

About RF Cafe

Kirt Blattenberger - RF Cafe WebmasterCopyright
1996 - 2016
Webmaster:
Kirt Blattenberger,
 BSEE - KB3UON

RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The Internet was still largely an unknown entity at the time and not much was available in the form of WYSIWYG ...

All trademarks, copyrights, patents, and other rights of ownership to images and text used on the RF Cafe website are hereby acknowledged.

My Hobby Website:
 AirplanesAndRockets.com

Try Using SEARCH
to Find What You Need. 
There are 1,000s of Pages Indexed on RF Cafe !

Electronics World Cover,TOC,and list of posted Popular Electronics articles QST Radio & TV News Radio-Craft Radio-Electronics Short Wave Craft Wireless World About RF Cafe RF Cafe Homepage RF Cafe in Morse Code Google Search of RF Cafe website Sitemap Electronics Equations Mathematics Equations Equations physics Manufacturers & distributors Engineer Jobs Twitter LinkedIn Crosswords Engineering Humor Kirt's Cogitations Engineering Event Calendar RF Engineering Quizzes AN/MPN-14 Radar 5CCG Notable Quotes App Notes Calculators Education Magazines Software,T-Shirts,Coffee Mugs Articles - submitted by RF Cafe visitors Simulators Technical Writings RF Cafe Archives Test Notes RF Cascade Workbook RF Stencils for Visio Shapes for Word Thank you for visiting RF Cafe!

Does a "Fair" Coin Really Exist?
Kirt's Cogitations™ #76

These original Kirt's Cogitations™ may be reproduced (no more than 5, please) provided proper credit is given to me, Kirt Blattenberger.

Please click here to return to the Table of Contents.

   Cog·i·ta·tion [koj-i-tey'-shun] – noun: Concerted thought or reflection; meditation; contemplation.
   Kirt [kert] – proper noun: RF Cafe webmaster.

< Previous                      Next >


Does a "Fair" Coin Really Exist?

New mathematical analysis has shown that no matter how vigorously a coin is thrown into the air, it is more likely to land on the same face it started out on. Using high speed photography techniques, researchers at U. California and Stanford determined that only a superhuman ability to toss the coin so it spins perfectly about a horizontal axis through the coin's center would product a totally fair result. All other tosses are biased. In experiments, they were surprised to learn that what was believed to have happened by real-time observation often turned out to be quite different than what was revealed on the high-speed film. On many tosses, a coin that was thought to have rotated never rotated at all, but merely wobbled wildly about a horizontal plane. In fact, magicians and charlatans have exploited this effect as an illusion to fool their audiences (or victims). Even with the best series of tosses, the team calculated that the coin would land on its original face 51% of the time. Yet another study has determined that the "heads" side of most coins is slightly heavier than the tails side, producing a bias toward heads. Even so, 1,000 or more tosses is usually required to observe the phenomenon.