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Below are all of the forum threads, including all
the responses to the original posts.
Post subject: How to tell the transistor or FET Posted:
Tue Jul 26, 2005 9:16 pm
I would like to know how
to tell TR or FET with SOT-23 Package in the PC Board. If it is TR,
how to tell NPN or PNP. If it was FET, Ntype MOSFET or Ptype MOSFET.
Post subject: Posted: Wed Jul 27, 2005
BJTs are easy: A BJT will look like two diodes (Base-Emitter
and Base -
collector). Find the common lead. That's your base. If
transistor conducts ('+' to '-') from the base to the other
an NPN. If it conducts the other way it's a PNP. If it
ways or neither, pitch it. Telling the difference
between the emitter
and collector is a tad harder. If your multimeter
has a "transistor
tester" the direction with the largest beta is
The (forward-biased) resistance of the base-collector
junction is usually
lower than that for the base-emitter junction.
The difference is quite
them, be aware that some transistors have a diode
and emitter, while others have resistors between the
base and emitter.
Then there are digital transistors ...
You can generally get
a good idea of a MOSFET's condition by making a simple
measurement between the gate and source leads. The MOSFET's gate
oxide is quite thin and fragile, so if the MOSFET fails one of the
consequences will be that it will normally damage the gate oxide
the gate itself wasn't abused by excessive voltage). A
failed MOSFET will
normally measure <1k ohms between gate and
source. These failed MOSFETs
will also normally exhibit low resistance
from drain to source as well. A
good MOSFET's gate to source resistance
will measure somewhere in the
megohms to infinity range.
There are exceptions to this however. Sometimes the failure (especially
the case of power MOSFETs used in such a way that if they fail
currents flow) is so catastrophic that internal fusing can
enough transient power can be dissipated in the
device to physically blow
the plastic package apart, physically
separating one of the leads from the
die. In these types of failures
the above mentioned resistance test
read infinity even though the
device is definitely broken. In my experience
these types of failures
are relatively uncommon compared to more mundane
simply result in low resistance shorts between the three
they do fail like this it is often obvious since the plastic
has literally blown apart or has otherwise suffered evident trauma.
In one case I found a 2N7000 MOSFET that failed by means of
shift. The drain to source became very leaky (comparable
to a 100k ohm
resistor) even though the gate was fully intact. The
device still worked
fine, besides the extra leakage. The leakage
current could be reduced by
driving the gate with negative gate-source
potential, but still not
completely turned off. I have no idea what
might have happened to this
device to cause this failure. Nevertheless
I think this is a very rare
failure mode which you shouldn't normally
need to worry about.