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Below are all of the forum threads, including all
the responses to the original posts.
Post subject: 7.5GHz (input) frequency tripler Posted:
Mon Nov 19, 2007 7:17 pm
Joined: Fri Dec
01, 2006 12:03 pm
I'm wanting to design
a frequency tripler: input around 7.5GHz; output 22.5GHz. That's all
I know so far. It could be active or passive.
I have no experience
of such circuits but have been looking round and reading literature.
Can anyone suggest any kind of circuit that would provide this
Post subject: Posted: Tue Nov 20, 2007 4:23 am
Joined: Fri Feb 17, 2006 12:07 pm
In the past I have found HP/Avago Application
Notes and the MA-Com design notes very useful.
A varactor diode
tripler has four sections:
1) input matching section, since a varactor
has an impedance magnitude around 5 ohms
2) bias circuit (optional)
3) shunt idler circuit, a series resonant circuit at 15GHz ie. 2*Fin
to circulate a high current at 2*F thru the diode
4) output combined
filter to select 3*F and a step-up match to the load.
of a tripler will be about 30%
I hope that helps a little.
Post subject: Posted: Tue Nov 20, 2007
Joined: Fri Dec 01, 2006 12:03
Thanks for that Nubbage.
Solutions I've been
looking into have included varactor diodes. Other solutions I've found
in the litarature include class C amplifiers and SRDs (the latter I
want to avoid for historical reasons).
A passive solution I've
just come across is using anti-parallel diode-pairs. This has been used
here in the past so is a much lower-risk solution. My only concern is
not the conversion loss, but the absolute output power of the 3rd harmonic
and whether it can drive the next stage on my circuit. I'll continue
to work to enhance the output power in my simulation, whether it be
tuning input/output matches or looking at different diodes. Any advice
as to which diode parameters may change/enhance the output power of
the 3rd harmonic is greatly welcome.
Post subject: Posted: Wed Nov 21, 2007
Joined: Fri Feb 17, 2006 12:07 pm
Location: London UK
My experience with
step recovery diodes was 35 years ago. We had a lot of problems with
instability on start-up, due to device characteristic drift with chip
temperature (although we under-ran the devices). We could tune the matching
circuit for optimum output spectrum when drive was applied, but ten
minutes later the spectrum broke up into something resembling a hedge-hog.
The manufacturers eventually came up with elaborate solutions requiring
forward bias circuits with a critical temperature coefficient to compensate
for the chip temperature drift effects.
Regarding antiparallel diode
pairs, I have only read articles on these. My impression was they were
mainly suited to even harmonic multipliers. But I may be wrong here.
Class C or even Class D hard-driven MESFETs with a high Q resonator
on the output is a promising possible solution. By studying the input-output
characteristic curves, or using a software model, it should be possible
to estimate the harmonic content without a resonator, for example using
Fourier Analysis. Then with a known input to a resonator of known Q
it should be possible to compute the transfer efficiency for the third
harmonic. Sadly I do not have practical experience with this approach