Electronics World articles Popular Electronics articles QST articles Radio & TV News articles Radio-Craft articles Radio-Electronics articles Short Wave Craft articles Wireless World articles Google Search of RF Cafe website Sitemap Electronics Equations Mathematics Equations Equations physics Manufacturers & distributors Engineer Jobs LinkedIn Crosswords Engineering Humor Kirt's Cogitations Engineering Event Calendar RF Engineering Quizzes USAF radar shop Notable Quotes App Notes Calculators Education Engineering Magazines Engineering magazine articles Engineering software Engineering smorgasbord RF Cafe Archives RF Cascade Workbook 2018 RF Stencils for Visio RF & EE Shapes for Word Advertising RF Cafe Homepage Sudoku puzzles Thank you for visiting RF Cafe!
MECA Electronics

- Welcome to the RF Cafe Website -

"The nice thing about standards is that you have so many to choose from." - Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Computer Networks

Today in Science History

Tech Industry Headlines

Tech Industry Headlines - RF Cafe- Archive -

• FCC Refuses to Be Bullied By Court

• USAF Seeks NexGen Directional Communications for Tactical Airborne Networking

Fulfilling Internet Connectivity Expectations Across the Skies

• Ericsson, Nokia Ink 5G Deals with Chinese Operators

• The Christmas Season Officially Opens in Rovaniemi, Finland w/Santa Broadcast

• Qualcomm Forecasts 200 Million 5G Phones in 2020

• FCC Considers Revising WWII-Era Antenna Site Requirements

China to Dominate 5G Deployment Despite Early Lead by USA and South Korea 

• T-Mobile Catches Grief for Alleged Ring Tone Scheme

Receiving "Explorer's" Radio Signals

Receiving "Explorer's" Radio Signals, May 1958 Radio News - RF CafeAmateur radio operators who engage in satellite communications by now are very familiar with needing to compensate for Doppler frequency shifts. Author D. Ripani writes in this May 1958 issue of Radio & TV News magazine how he was caught off guard by the need to compensate for relative motion between the satellite and his fixed receiver. He needed to continually readjust while tracking the Explorer 1 satellite. Nowadays, many (probably most) Hams use software to automatically track and tune transceivers based on readily available ephemeris data published on orbital paths. Due to elliptical orbits that vary in altitude above the Earth's surface, the Doppler shift is not a constant for any satellite. Mentioned is the calculated Doppler shift of ± 2,900 Hz based on Explorer's orbital speed of about 18,000 mph. The included screenshot is from my RF Cafe Calculator Workbook (free download) Doppler Shift calculator ...

2019 Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference (APMC)

2019 Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference (APMC) - RF CafeThe 2019 Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference (APMC) will be held from December 10th through 13th in Singapore. "APMC dates back to 1986 in New Delhi, and it is now recognized as one of the premier international conferences of microwave community. Singapore is proud to organize the 2019 APMC. This event will continue the spirit of APMC, address important issues in the microwave community to exchange results and discuss collaboration. 2019 Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference (APMC) will offer a rich scientific program of the highest quality with invited speakers from all over the world and provide a broad forum of exchange for both academia and industry alike. The conference will cover the entire scope of microwave and millimeter wave engineering ..."

Kuwait Now Building Integrated Circuits?

Integrated circuit in Kuwait (Cool Pic) - RF CafeA friend of our family who is a captain in the U.S. Army Reserve has just been deployed to Kuwait for a year. While researching some information about Kuwait, I ran across this image that appears to be a close-up of an integrated circuit built there. Lighting effects from the top SiO2 passivation layer makes fine detail difficult, but the topology is typical of mixed analog and digital ICs, with a rather large memory section on the left side. A 5G smartphone device? My guess is the dark square area at center bottom is the I/O steering circuitry. A couple large FETs appear in the upper right corner, and the 6 printed spiral inductors below them could be impedance matching inductors if this is some sort of RF interface. I am no expert on IC layout, but this seems to be a pretty crappy design - certainly no competition for Qualcomm. A hyperlink to the image source is included, so maybe you can do a better job of discerning the chip's function ...

Simpson Electric Company Model 260 Advertisement

Simpson Electric Company Model 260 Advertisement, July 1944 QST - RF CafeI was first introduced to the Simpson 260 volt-ohmmeter (VOM) in the radar shop where I was assigned un the USAF. Here is the modern version of that classic, the Simpson 260-8 VOM; it looks a lot like the original. Here is an advertisement that I scanned out of my copy of the July 1944 QST magazine. It highlights the precision to which its meter movement pivots are manufactured. "While Simpson Electric Company, chartered in 1934, is a firm with a distinguished past, it is just as importantly an organization with a dynamic present and a definite future." There is an entire website dedicated to the history of the Simpson 260. The famous 260 Volt-Ohm-Milliammeter put Simpson on the map and cemented a reputation for quality that still defines Simpson in the marketplace today." You can still buy a brand new Simpson 260 (-8) from Amazon, or grab a vintage ...

Many Thanks to KR Electronics for Helping Deliver RF Cafe!

KR ElectronicsKR Electronics designs and manufactures high quality filters for both the commercial and military markets. KR Electronics' line of filters includes lowpass, highpass, bandpass, bandstop and individually synthesized filters for special applications - both commercial and military. State of the art computer synthesis, analysis and test methods are used to meet the most challenging specifications. All common connector types and package form factors are available. Please visit their website today to see how they might be of assistance.

Three-Dimensional, Curved Electronics

Three-Dimensional, Curved Electronics - RF Cafe"The manufacturing method produces curvy electronic devices such as wearables, contact lenses, solar cells, and optoelectronics. Electronic devices are typically manufactured in planar layouts but many emerging applications require three-dimensional curvy structures. Fabrication of such structures has proved challenging due to the lack of an effective manufacturing technology. Existing manufacturing technologies, including micro-fabrication, don't work for curved, three-dimensional electronics because they are inherently designed to produce two-dimensional, flat electronic devices. These devices are small - ranging in size from millimeters to centimeters ..."

ERZIA: Microwave & mm-Wave Modular Amplifiers

Many Thanks to ERZIA for Continued Support!ERZIA serves critical aerospace and defense missions by designing and manufacturing RF, microwave, and mm-wave amplifiers, integrated assemblies operating from low frequencies up to 100 GHz, and by providing high reliable satellite communications. The company was founded in 2002 to become a worldwide reference of advanced engineering, performance, reliability and ruggedness. Their catalogue of standard amplifier modules comprises more than 100 different models, having also a high capacity of customization for amplifiers and integrated assemblies. Some of products have space heritage and are used in aerospace, commercial, military and scientific systems, having a wide range of final applications.

Silicon Solar Cells

Silicon Solar Cells, November 1973 Popular Electronics - RF CafeAs with most technologies, solar cells have come a long way in the last half century. Fabrication processes and efficiencies have improved significantly, motivated highly in the last twenty years or so by the global push to replace fossil fuels with other forms of power. This article from a 1973 issue of Popular Electronics magazine is a snapshot of state of the art solar cells at the time. In the 1970s, there were no large scale solar cell arrays that were a critical part of an electric power grid. Ditto for wind turbines. One of the most significant uses of solar cells then was for powering satellites that operated near enough to the sun to generate useable energy (out to about Mars' orbit). Due to the relatively low output capacity, nuclear power supplies provided electricity for higher demand nearby loads and for deep space probes. A radioisotope thermoelectric generator; i.e., nuclear, powered the lunar rovers for Apollo astronauts. Yep, we left plutonium 238 on the moon ...

Electricity in Motion: Current,  Basic Navy Training Courses

Electricity in Motion: Current,  Basic Navy Training Courses, NAVPERS 10622, Chapter 3 - RF CafeOne of the Notable Tech Quotes which has appeared on RF Cafe is, "The nice thing about standards is that you have so many to choose from," by computer scientist Andrew Tanenbaum. In the middle of the last century, a change in the fundamental understanding of current flow precipitated what has become a very large opportunity for people to misunderstand descriptions of current direction caused by a difference in voltage potential (voltage) - depending on the era a particular description was written. Beginning with Benjamin Franklin, electron current flow was assumed to be from positive to negative, ostensibly but incorrectly, because a positive thing must contain an excess of something (charge carriers - electrons) and a negative thing must have a deficiency. Hence, current flowed from an excess source to a deficient sink. We now know that negative things contain more electrons (relatively) than a positive thing. "Conventional current" is defined as charge carriers ...

Notable Tech Quote - Standards

Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Computer Networks - RF CafeComputer Networks, 2nd edition - RF Cafe"The nice thing about standards is that you have so many to choose from." - Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Computer Networks, 2nd edition, page 254.




Helping to Eliminate the Mix-up over Mixers

Helping to Eliminate the Mix-up over Mixers - RF cafeCustom MMIC, a premier fabless RF and microwave MMIC designer company, just published a very nice whitepaper entitled, "Helping to Eliminate the Mix-up over Mixers." It begins thusly, "As Custom MMIC releases its first subharmonic mixers, we in the Applications Group thought it was important to explain some of the benefits of working with these products over fundamental mixers, particularly when mixing at very high frequencies. First, we should take a minute to explain these two types of mixers. A fundamental mixer combines an input RF signal, typically received via an antenna or a prior mixing stage and multiplies it with a fixed local oscillator (LO) signal. The LO signal is typically much higher in power level, as this signal provides the energy for the mixer to combine the two signals in an efficient fashion. The output of the mixer ..."

Baba's Amateur Weather Website Added to Listings

Baba's Amateur Weather Website (VU3NUF) - RF CafeYatharth (Baba) Verma, VU3NUF, wrote to request that his webpage be added to my listing of Amateur Weather websites. "NOAA satellite images are updated four times daily, on the website, both as individual maps and a composite map. The satellite name, date & time of pass, direction and maximum elevation, are all displayed in the map image table. A chart showing the next available overhead passes of the weather satellites, along with their downlink frequencies is also displayed on the website for reference." Baba's station use an R820T2 RTL-SDR (software defined radio), connected to a homebrew QFH (quadrifilar helix) antenna. The DSP application "SDR Sharp" is run in conjunction with Orbitron, a satellite tracking software for automatic tracking of NOAA satellites, on a PC running Windows 8.1. Once a satellite image is downloaded a satellite decoding software WXtoImg is used to decode and publish it on the website. ...

HyperStealth Biotech Cloaking Material

HyperStealth Biotech Cloaking Material - RF Cafe"HyperStealth Biotechnology Corp. announces their four patent applications which are all related to their Quantum Stealth (Light Bending Material), otherwise known as the Invisibility Cloak. The information within the four patents has been released by Hyperstealth Biotechnology Corp. with over 100 minutes of videos demonstrating the prototype materials which are available to watch directly from their website. Hyperstealth's Guy Cramer, President / CEO, is also the inventor of the four patent applications.​ The first patent application is Quantum Stealth, light bending material. True invisibility was thought to be impossible by most physicists. Not only does the material hide a target in the visible spectrum ..."

Many Thanks to Centric RF for Their Continued Support!

Centric RF microwave components - RF CafeCentric RF is a company offering from stock various RF and Microwave coaxial components, including attenuators, adapters, cable assemblies, terminations, power dividers, and more. We believe in offering high performance parts from stock at a reasonable cost. Frequency ranges of 0-110 GHz at power levels from 0.5-500 watts are available off the shelf. Order today, ship today! Centric RF is currently looking for vendors to partner with them. Please visit Centric RF today.

A 12,000 Tube Electron Brain

A 12,000 Tube Electron Brain, May 1948 Radio-Craft - RF CafeThis Radio-Craft magazine article starts out stating, "A skilled mathematician with a desk calculator requires four years to do what the IBM Calculator does in eight hours." That was in 1948. Just last month a headline read, "Given the task of finding a pattern in a seemingly random series of numbers, Google's quantum computer produced an answer in 3 minutes and 20 seconds. It estimates that the Summit supercomputer here at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee would take 10,000 years to complete the task. The IBM 12,000 vacuum tube computer performed its calculation for an improvement factor of [(3 yr • 8760 hr/yr) + (1 yr • 8784 hr/yr)] ÷ 8 hr = 4383 (4.383 thousand). The Google quantum computer performed its calculation for an improvement factor of (10,000 yr • 31557600 s/yr) ÷ 200 s = 3.15776E11 s ÷ 200 s = 1.57788E9 (1.57788 billion -- or milliard) ...

A Few Funny Electronics Photos

Girl Holding Soldering Iron - RF CafeBernard's Dehydrated Water - RF CafeJoin the Resistance (Mandor) - RF CafeHam Radio Smart Person Hobby - RF CafeRF Cafe visitor Gary S. sent me these images that take a light-hearted poke at some technology-themed items. I included hyperlinks to copies of the I found on the Web. The soldering iron pic had the title, "How to tell when they got a model for the photo instead of a worker." The next actually appears on the Bernard Food Industries' website. Then, the Mandor website includes "Join the Resistance" among its many other comics. Finally, there is the T-shirt with the inscription, "It's okay if you don't like Ham Radio... It's kind of a smart person hobby anyway."

Berkeley Nucleonics Seeking RF Instruments Sales Engineer

Berkeley Nucleonics Seeking RF Instruments Sales Engineer - RF CafeBerkeley Nucleonics Corporation (BNC) is an established test equipment company having served the industry for 55 years. With headquarters in San Rafael, CA, Berkeley Nucleonics is looking for a highly motivated and capable RF Instruments Sales Engineer to increase the company's U.S. market presence and support sales growth in the U.S. and Canada. BNC offers RF signal generators and synthesizers up to 40 GHz and phase noise test instruments. Responsibilities include: Support a network of independent sales representatives on RF signal generator sales, support and grow the company's house accounts in RF equipment sales, understand customer needs and develop solutions with engineers involving ...

Standing Waves on Transmission Lines

Standing Waves on Transmission Lines, December 1942 QST - RF CafeIn this article from a 1942 issue of QST magazine, author T.A. Gadwa employs a standing wave mechanism analogy that I don't recall having read before - that of a dam on a river. The river is the transmission line with a lake as the source (presumably) and then he imagines a dam load. The dam standing waves, per his description, have phase and amplitude characteristics that depend on how tall the dam wall is relative to the surface height of the dammed river. An extensive array of graphs is provided showing how the current of the dam standing waves react to the dam transmission line termination impedance. I always wonder when seeing electrical-mechanical parity examples whether, as with this case, there are any dam magazine articles out there that use an electrical transmission line to help fellow civil engineers ...

Please Visit Empower RF's Website in Appreciation of Their Support

Empower RF Systems - RF CafeEmpower RF Systems is a global leader in power amplifier solutions. Empower RF Systems is an established and technologically superior supplier of high power solid state RF & microwave amplifiers. Our offerings include modules, intelligent rack-mount amplifiers, and multi-function RF Power Amplifier solutions to 6 GHz in broadband and band specific designs. Output power combinations range from tens of watts to multi-kilowatts. Unprecedented size, weight and power reduction of our amplifiers is superior to anything in the market at similar frequencies and power levels.

RF Cascade Workbook 2018

RF Cascade Workbook 2018 Is Available Now! - RF CafeRF Cascade Workbook 2018 is the next phase in the evolution of RF Cafe's long-running series, RF Cascade Workbook. It is a full-featured RF system cascade parameter and frequency planner that includes filters and mixers for a mere $45. Built in MS Excel, using RF Cascade Workbook 2018 is a cinch and the format is entirely customizable. It is significantly easier and faster than using a multi-thousand dollar simulator when a high level system analysis is all that is needed. An intro video takes you through the main features ...

Windfreak Technologies PCB Directory (Manufacturers)
Res-Net Microwave - RF Cafe Axiom Test Equipment - RF Cafe
About RF Cafe
Kirt Blattenberger - RF Cafe Webmaster
Copyright: 1996 - 2024
    Kirt Blattenberger,

RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The Internet was still largely an unknown entity at the time and not much was available in the form of WYSIWYG ...

All trademarks, copyrights, patents, and other rights of ownership to images and text used on the RF Cafe website are hereby acknowledged.

My Hobby Website:  AirplanesAndRockets.com